FAQ in Fracais - FAQ in Español
- What is “REDD+”?
- Why REDD+?
- Why an Interim REDD+ Partnership?
- What are the goals of the Interim REDD+ Partnership?
- What is the goal of the Oslo Climate and Forest Conference?
- What will happen after the Oslo Climate and Forest Conference?
- Why can we not wait for the UNFCCC COP-16 meeting in Cancun?
- Is this a French-Norwegian initiative?
- Who is part of the Interim REDD+ Partnership?
- Who will attend the Oslo CFC 2010?
- Is the Interim REDD+ Partnership pre-judging the UNFCCC negotiations?
- What about safeguards?
- What is the process leading up to the Oslo CFC 2010?
- How can civil society contribute to the Interim REDD+ Partnership process?
REDD is an acronym for “reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation” REDD also covers sustainable management of forest, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. REDD seeks to reduce emissions from the forest sector in developing countries.
REDD+ was formally introduced in Bali Action Plan where it was agreed that the international process of mitigating climate change must include the development of ‘Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries.’ (2/CP.13)
Forest and land-use emissions accounts for some 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than the entire global transport sector put together. Without REDD+, the goal of limiting the rise in global temperatures to two degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels will be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. REDD+ could contribute with up to 30% of the cost-effective mitigation potential globally by 2020.
With REDD+, we may significantly reduce, remove and avoid global emissions at a reasonable cost, while also taking due account of the rights and livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local communities, protecting biodiversity, rainfall patterns and soil quality, and helping developing forest countries adapt to climate change.
Despite the urgent need for scaled up REDD+ actions, no holistic mechanism currently exists to support developing countries to reduce emissions. However, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is in the process of establishing an international REDD+ mechanism.
At the UNFCCC COP-15 in Copenhagen, countries were close to a consensus on the process of setting up such a REDD+ mechanism under the UNFCCC. A decision was made on methodologies; however, decisions on the mechanism itself will have to wait for COP-16 in Cancun.
Meanwhile, the Copenhagen Accord called for the “immediate establishment of a mechanism including REDD+”, and six donors pledged a total of USD 3.5 billion for REDD+ in 2010-12. In Paris on March 11 ministers agreed to the need to set up an Interim REDD+ Partnership.
Some 40 developing countries are currently preparing for REDD+. Among other things, they are formulating national strategies for how to address the direct and underlying drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, deliberating how to set up systems for the monitoring, reporting and verification of forest emissions that will be needed to qualify for large-scale results-based payments in the future, undertaking consultations, learning about the REDD+ concept, and setting up institutional frameworks to implement REDD+, including multi-stakeholder and inter-sectoral decision bodies.
Even if an agreement was reached on REDD+ in Copenhagen, no financing or institutional set-up would enable fast-start implementation in the next few years. Hence, there is a need for an interim system, building on what we have, to scale up actions in the near term. The USD 30 billion promised in “fast-start” climate financing in 2010-12 – which is critical to build trust in the UNFCCC negotiations – will for the most part need to go through interim channels.
The Oslo Climate and Forest Conference aims to set up a voluntary partnership for developed and developing countries to come together in a coordinated and transparent manner to support REDD+ efforts with fast-start finance. This would be the first large-scale, sector-wide climate change mitigation partnership bringing all committed developed and developing countries together.
The main goal of the Interim REDD+ Partnership is to ensure effective and sustainable REDD+ actions over the next few years. It is an initiative to provide finance for REDD+ actions. This could imply:
- Recognition that REDD+ must be placed within a framework of sustainable development, which includes poverty reduction, biodiversity and the rights and livelihoods of indigenous peoples and local communities.
- Identification of shared goals, including a substantial reduction in deforestation,
- Pledges for ambitious actions from developing countries and scaled-up finance from developed countries. Agreement that actions, results and finance go together and will have to increase over time if the required REDD+ results are to be achieved.
- Increased transparency around fast-start REDD+ actions and financing. A REDD+ database of actions, funding and results could serve this purpose.
- Create a forum for the partnership, including all interested countries, where bilateral and multilateral initiatives can be discussed openly and issues relevant for REDD+
- Commit to learning by doing, generating and sharing of best-practices
- Coordination of the various ongoing and emerging bilateral and multilateral REDD+ initiatives.
- At the international level, bilateral and multilateral initiatives could be discussed to exchange experiences and generate best practices. The partnership would not have authority over bilateral funding decisions, but allow for open discussions and feedback to improve effectiveness. This, combined with the REDD+ database, could identify funding gaps to be filled and parallel initiatives and processes to be avoided or streamlined.
- At the national level, all initiatives could come together in one national REDD+ framework to enhance effectiveness.
The Interim REDD+ Partnership will not attempt to create a new dedicated financing mechanism or a governing body with authority over all the pledged resources. Neither will it attempt to re-negotiate the aspects left “on the table” after Copenhagen. It will be action-oriented, focusing above all on transparency and coordination. The ultimate goal of global REDD+ efforts is to help facilitate an effective REDD+ mechanism under the UNFCCC.
The Oslo Climate and Forest Conference will launch the Interim REDD+ Partnership through the adoption of a voluntary non-legally binding Partnership Document. The conference will bring together all interested countries to establish the framework required for securing effective and sustainable implementation of REDD+ over the next few years.
It should be emphasized that Oslo is the beginning of a process, not the end. The importance of the Interim REDD+ Partnership is to establish the framework within which the partnership can be developed. Many substantial issues will be dealt with as the partnership becomes operational and lessons are learned. All relevant actors, including countries, indigenous peoples groups, civil society and the private sector, should come together to fill the partnership with content.
After Oslo, the implementation of the Partnership efforts will begin. The partnership will feed back into the UNFCCC process, and facilitate agreement on a REDD+ mechanism at COP-16 in Cancun.
The ongoing data collection work initiated by Australia, France and PNG on finance, actions and results in April 2010 must continue, and results made public. Bilateral and multilateral initiatives should then be brought into the partnership forum for discussions.
One aim of the partnership is to facilitate agreement at COP-16 in Cancun. However, it is important to bear in mind that even if the draft negotiation text under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action (LCA) had been adopted at Copenhagen, there would be no financing or institutional delivery structure in place to deliver fast-start finance. Also, even if the current draft text is finalized and agreed in Cancun, an institutional and financial mechanism for REDD+ would still need to be negotiated, (and set up),which is why an interim process is necessary.
Whatever the outcome of Cancun, there is a need for an interim system, built on experience, to scale up financing and actions in the near term. The USD 30 billion promised in “fast-start” climate financing in 2010-12 – critical to build trust in the UNFCCC negotiations – will for the most part need to go through already existing channels.
Six countries made substantial REDD+ pledges in Copenhagen, and further funding was indicated in Paris on March 11, 2010. The pledged financing will be spent on REDD+ activities in 2010-2012 even without our partnership efforts. What the partnership attempts to do is to make sure this financing is delivered in a manner as effective, transparent, coordinated and sustainable as possible.
There is political momentum to get REDD+ moving. If we wait, we risk to (i) lose political momentum in developing countries where politicians are “going out on a limb” and facing up to vested interest to prove that REDD+ can offer an alternative and more sustainable development path; (ii) lose political momentum in developed countries (pledges); (iii) lose invaluable time needed to generate lessons and best practices that will make REDD+ more effective in the future; (iv) lose an opportunity to contribute to sustainable development, including; poverty reduction; support livelihoods (including for indigenous peoples and local communities), the preservation of biodiversity and climate adaptation; and (v) miss out on large emission reduction opportunities.
Actions on REDD+ will be scaled up. The REDD+ partnership will help ensure that this is done in a more transparent, coordinated, effective, efficient and equitable manner possible. The alternative to an Interim REDD+ Partnership is a less coordinated set of actions and financing; duplication of efforts; reduced transparency related to financing, actions and results; fewer lessons learned to make REDD+ effective and lost opportunity to feed back to the negotiations; fewer opportunities for civil society to engage, and ultimately less effective REDD+ implementation.
No. The Interim REDD+ Partnership is neither a French-Norwegian nor a Norwegian initiative. Norway, through this conference, is merely the host of a truly multilateral process. All countries wanting to contribute to the process, are given the opportunity to do so, and all countries endorsing the Interim Partnership are welcome to Oslo.
The Partnership is country-driven and includes countries that have already pledged funding for REDD+ and developing forest countries prepared to initiate and implement ambitious national REDD+ strategies.
After a meeting held in Paris on March 11, 2010 it was decided to set up a “core group of facilitating countries” to drive the process towards Oslo. This group is open to all countries interested in participating on a more frequent basis in the deliberations. As of April 15, the core group consisted of 29 countries, including 16 developing countries and 13 developed countries.
- Developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Colombia, Costa Rica, DRC, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Mexico, PNG, Suriname and Vietnam.
- Developed countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA.
Political leaders from all countries endorsing the Interim REDD+ Partnership are welcome to the Oslo Climate and Forest Conference. In addition, the Oslo CFC has invited heads of relevant multilateral agencies, private sector participants, and a representative group of delegates from indigenous peoples and civil society.
Further information regarding who will be attending the Oslo CFC will be made public closer to the date of the conference.
No. The purpose of the Interim REDD+ Partnership is not to establish a parallel negotiating track. The Interim REDD+ Partnership is firmly positioned within decisions of the UNFCCC, notably the Bali Action Plan of 2007 and the decision that was made regarding methodologies for REDD+ at COP-15 in Copenhagen. The partnership will focus on “no-regret” actions that can be implemented now, before a REDD+ mechanism under the UNFCCC is adopted and operational.
The Interim REDD+ Partnership is auxiliary to the UNFCCC process, incorporating decisions made within the UNFCCC framework. As such, the latest negotiation text from the REDD+ negotiations under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) in Copenhagen give an indication of where REDD+ is going, and can guide the Partnership actions in the near term.
Social and environmental safeguards as well as fiduciary standards will be critical for REDD+ to be effective. Safeguards are currently under negotiations under the LCA, and the partners aim to agree on a text in Cancun. The Interim REDD+ Partnership will not prejudge the outcomes of those negotiations.
That being said, the Interim REDD+ Partnership will seek to create an open discussion regarding all issues relating to finance, actions and results; including on the operationalization of safeguards. A reference to the draft LCA text could guide countries’ efforts until a final decision has been agreed under the Conference of the Parties. Safeguards promoted through already existing REDD+ initiatives will not be affected by the partnership. The Partnership attempts to build on and to improve existing safeguards applied in their multilateral efforts in line with any forthcoming COP decision to be taken on the matter.
The “core group of facilitating countries” convened in Bonn on April 12-13, 2010, to discuss what elements to include in the Partnership Document.
We will submit a draft partnership document for the public to comment during a period of 14 days in late April/early May, in order to receive comments from countries not in the “core group” (which is open to participation) as well as indigenous peoples, civil society and others. The draft document will not be a consensus document among the core group countries, but a representative draft consisting of consensus views that provides a concrete and meaningful basis on which to comment.
A final Partnership Document will be produced taking into account received inputs, and made available well in advance of Oslo CFC, to ensure that all countries have sufficient time to deliberate and determine whether to endorse the partnership.
Inputs from civil society are important in the process of establishing the Interim REDD+ Partnership, both before Oslo and after, as we get nearer implementation of a REDD+ framework.
A representative group of indigenous peoples and civil society has been invited to attend the Oslo Climate and Forest Conference (see list of invited initiatives and networks on our website). Unfortunately, due to limited capacity we will not be able to extend further invitations at this stage. Participation both from countries and from multilateral organizations, too, will be strictly limited.
The Fourth Rights and Resources (RRI) Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change, which was in London on April 6, 2010, provided an excellent opportunity to engage with a broad group of indigenous peoples and civil society stakeholders. Such dialogues will be critical to make the Partnership a success.
Norway’s Minister of Environment and Development Cooperation, along with representatives of the Norwegian Climate and Forest Initiative, will also attend a side-event at the UN Permanent Forum for Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) in New York on April 26, 2010,titled “Interim REDD + Partnership Arrangement: The roles of indigenous peoples, local communities and civil society”.
Countries in the “core group” (open to participation) have agreed to engage actively with civil society in their respective countries. They have also agreed to the following process towards Oslo:
- Going forward, we will send regular e-mail updates, and post more information on this website, including timelines
- Norway as host and facilitator will continue to host conference calls with civil society on a regular basis,, where we inform about the general progress of the Partnership and exchange ideas with the participants. While conference calls are clearly not a substitute for true in-person consultations, it provides a useful means to keep the NGO community informed of the latest developments, and to receive feedback on a regular basis. These conference calls are open for participation. Please let us know should you wish to participate.
- A draft version of the partnership document will be published on our website (www.oslocfc2010.no) in parallel with it being sent to countries for comments. We welcome and encourage comments from civil society and indigenous peoples. Further information will follow on our website.
- Comments on the partnership document will be posted on the website, except from those explicitly having requested anonymity.
- Translations documents in French and Spanish will be provided for the formal hearing draft and the final partnership document.
In the process after Oslo:
- The Partnership will seek to actively engage indigenous peoples’ groups, civil society and the private sector. They will be invited to participate in partnership meetings.
- At the national level, it is critical that indigenous groups, civil society and the private sector take active part in the design and implementation of REDD+.