Article | Last updated: 2007-01-22 | Ministry of Foreign Affairs
UN-Convention Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW)
The full title of the convention is: "The UN-Convention on Prohibition or Restrictions on Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Exessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW)". This is a framework convention for several Protocols on spesific weapons or weapons-systems: Protocol I prohibits the use of ammunition with Non-Detectable Fragments, Protocol II contain restrictions on the use of Land-Mines and Booby-Traps, Protocol III contain restrictions on the use of Incendiary Weapons, and Protocol IV Prohibits the use of laser weapons designed to cause permanent blindness.
A new Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) entered into force on the 12th of November 2006. Norway has ratified this Protocol that contains obligations for the post conflict periode. This Protocol sets forth the obligation to clear all Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) (including those types generated by cluster munitions). To the Parties of a conflict the Protocol imply certain obligations to reduce damage (including clearing of ERW, protection of the civilian population, information exchange, assistance and co-operation).
Based on a mandate from 2003 the CCW has continued discussions on possible obligations that may reduce the number of duds and the humanitarian impact of ERW (including cluster munitions). A paralell discussion has continued with regard to anti-vehicle mines (AVM). The Review Conference in the autumn of 2006 concluded that ERW will be discussed further in an expert meeting in June 2007. From a Norwegian point of view the question on how to deal with restrictions on cluster munitions remains the key issue. The Conference also concluded that the AVM issue will be discussed at the next meeting of States Parties in November 2007.
The CFE Treaty
The full title of the Treaty is: "The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)". This Treaty was signed by all NATO member countries and all Warzaw-pact member countries at the KSSE summit in Paris on 19. November 1990, and it entered into force on 17. July 1992. The CFE Treaty obligated the States Parties to reduce their offensive military capability, bring forth a balance between the then two blocks and accept a lasting verification regime. The verification regime implies an extensive obligation to exchange information on miltary equipment covered by the Treaty, and that inspections will be conducted (at short notice).
In order to adjust this Treaty to the evolving security police environment in Europe, "The Adapted CFE Treaty" has been negotiated to replace the previous one. The Adapted Treaty was signed in Istanbul in 1999, but has not yet entered into force. Norway and all NATO member coutries claim that Russia must fullfil all Istanbul commitments regarding withdrawal of Russian forces from the territories of Georgia and Moldova before any national ratification processes will start.
Confidence- and Security Building Measures (CSBMs)
The OSCE Forum for Security Co-operation has, through the years, developed a number of "Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs)". The current package was printed in the OSCE document, following the Istanbul summit in 1999, and that entered into force on 1. January 2000. Most CSBMs are a continuation of measures contained in several previous editions of the Vienna Document.
CSBMs are concrete measures aimed at strengthening Confidence, Co-operation and Security among OSCEs member states in Europe. They imply extensive obligations to exchange information on military forces, exercises and the conduct of inspections (at short notice), evaluations and visits.
The Treaty on Open Skies (OS)
The Treaty on Open Skies (OS) was signed by all NATO and the previous Warzaw- pact member countries in Helsingfors in March 1992. It entered into force on 1. January 2002. Several countries have joined the Treaty since then. The Treaty on Open Skies obligates States Parties to open their airspace for an agreed number of annual observation fligths with specially equipped surveillance aircraft. The number of flights is a function of each country's land-mass. The aircraft may be equipped with cameras and other types of censors.
The Treaty was fully implemented from 1. Januar 2006. This implies that from that time States Parties was obliged to recieve its full number of observation flights, in Norway's case 7 fligts (at short notice), and that all types of approved censors may be used.