- The human tragedy (in Syria) compels us to do our utmost to end the violence. To prepare the ground for a political settlement. And to limit the devastating consequences for the region, sa utenriksminister Børge Brende da han åpnet et seminar om "International Mediation Trends: processes and experiences" i Ankara.
Check against delivery
- My friend, Foreign Minister Davutoglu, Excellencies, distinguished participants, ladies and gentlemen,
- It is a pleasure for me to be here in Ankara, and it is indeed natural to address the issues of international mediation here in Turkey.
- Turkey is a leading actor on the international mediation scene. And Turkey is a close partner for Norway. We cannot have such a seminar without focusing on what is taking place in:
- Just 800 kilometres south of where we are now – in Syria – we are witnessing one of the worst and most appalling conflicts and refugee crises since the Second World War.
- Nowhere are the challenges in international conflict resolution demonstrated more clearly than in Syria: And so far with so few results. Even the most basic principles related to humanitarian access are not respected.
- This human tragedy compels us to do our utmost to end the violence. To prepare the ground for a political settlement. And to limit the devastating consequences for the region.
The big picture
- Before elaborating on four points that I consider to be important when helping to resolve a conflict situation, let me take one step back and look at the big picture for a moment.
- The number of extreme poor globally has dropped by 650 million in the last decades.
- But still some 1.5 billion people live in countries affected by repeated cycles of political and criminal violence.
- And no low-income fragile or conflict-affected country has yet to achieve a single Millennium Development Goal.
- There is no doubt: conflict is a significant hurdle to economic development and poverty reduction.
- A conflict costs a developing country roughly 30 years of GDP growth.
- And a country that experiences major violence has a poverty rate significantly higher than a country that has no violence.
- It is therefore of utmost importance to stress the link between conflict resolution and development.
- Mediation only requires small investments to yield results. It can therefore be a vital tool for reducing poverty and creating better lives for people.
- Making these small investments work even more effectively should be a key objective.
- All peace processes are different. They do however have many elements in common.
- As already mentioned, let me share with you four points that I consider to be important when helping to resolve a conflict situation.
- They are based on our experience from a number of peace processes, from the Middle East to Sri Lanka, and most recently Colombia.
- Sometimes as facilitators in a process. More often as supporters of efforts led by others, be it the UN, regional organisations or other actors.
- First, dialogue is crucial. Without dialogue, it is not possible to win confidence, or gain insight into the other party’s positions and thinking.
- Our policy is based on values such as respect for international human rights, the rule of law and democracy.
- We strongly believe in gender equality. In freedom of religion and faith. In freedom of expression.
- This does not prevent us from talking to groups that have different opinions and different values. And it does not mean that we agree.
- This is not a question of accepting terrorism or giving recognition to certain groups. It is a question of convincing them to enter into a political process.
- There are conflicts where I believe military action is required. We are members of NATO. We took part in the military interventions in Libya and in Afghanistan.
- But in most cases, a conflict cannot be solved by military means alone.
- In such cases countries like Turkey and Norway have important roles to play in identifying the windows of opportunity for a political solution.
- Second, peace mediation requires a long-term perspective.
- It is not a job for day traders. Impasses and set backs will always be a part of the process towards a peace agreement.
- It takes time to get to know the parties on the ground. It takes time to understand the dynamics of the conflict.
- And it takes time and patience to be able to find the right moment. The moment when the parties are ready to engage with each other.
- There is broad political consensus in Norway on our peace engagement. This makes it possible for us to be a reliable partner over time.
- Third, inclusiveness is key. Women need to be a part of the process.
- The reason is simple: Women constitute half the population in a country, often more in a country in conflict. And often they are the ones who suffer most.
- The absence of women at the negotiating table tends to limit discussions on issues that affect women and girls.
- Sexual violence, abuse by security forces, and maternal health care are just a few of these issues.
- However, women do not only speak for women. They often bring to the table questions that are of importance to the entire population.
- Ensuring the participation of women is also a question of justice. Women have the same right to influence their future as their fathers, brothers and sons.
- Civil society groups, like religious leaders, business confederations also need to be included and listened to. They are needed to secure broad-based ownership and legitimacy of an agreement.
- In return for greater inclusion, you are likely to see agreements that last longer and pave the way for greater stability and economic development.
- Strengthening local structures can be a good way of supporting peace.
- The fourth point that I consider to be important when helping to resolve a conflict situation, it to draw on experience from other processes.
- Research, documentation of results and systemisation of the experience gained from other processes is crucial.
- Norway invests five million US dollars annually on peace research.
Norway and Turkey
- Seminars like this one is contributing to the professionalization. It is also a demonstration of the broad cooperation between Norway and Turkey.
- With different geopolitical and cultural backgrounds, Turkey and Norway can often play complementary roles.
- As an influential regional power, you can put your weight behind a process, and sometimes be a peace broker, whereas Norway can only be a facilitator.
- For Norway, it is necessary to work with regional powers when we engage in a peace process.
- Turkey is a particularly interesting partner, because you engage in the region and beyond.
- In Somalia, when Al Shabaab was pushed out of Mogadishu, Turkey built streets and Norway put up street lights. All with a clear political motivation: to show a peace dividend to the population, with the ownership of national and local authorities.
- I think this is a good example of how we can work together effectively, also on the ground.
- We share a willingness to look for innovative ways to support a process, a willingness to engage in dialogue with all the parties, and a willingness to seize opportunities to assist even if they involve considerable risk.
- This seminar represents an excellent platform for debate and for developing new ideas.
- We have before us today a group of seasoned and skilled practitioners and researchers on mediation and peace processes.
- I am confident that the seminar will be a good opportunity to share analyses, build contacts and strengthen cooperation between our two countries in the field of peace and reconciliation.
- It is not a one-off event. I hope it will foster new ideas, initiatives and concrete projects to enhance both research and practice in this important field.
- Thank you for your attention. I wish you all a successful seminar!