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NOU 1997: 27

Nytte-kostnadsanalyser— Prinsipper for lønnsomhetsvurderinger i offentlig sektor

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Litteraturliste

Kapittel 2

Mossin, J. (1979): Operasjonsanalytiske emner. Tanum-Norli A/S.

Kapittel 3

Nyborg, K. og I. Spangen (1993): Politiske beslutninger om investeringer i veger. TØI-notat 1026/1993.

Kapittel 4

Arrow, K. J. (1951): Social Choice and Individual Values. John Wiley, New York.

Christiansen, V. (1981): Evaluation of Public Projects under Optimal Taxation. Review of Economic Studies, XLVIII.

Atkinson, A. B. og J. E. Stiglitz (1980): Lectures on Public Economics. McGraw-Hill.

Diamond, P. og J. A. Mirrlees (1971): Optimal Taxation and Public Production I: Production Efficiency og II: Tax Rules. American Economic Review, 61.

Buchanan J. M. (1976): A Hobbesian Interpretation of the Rawlsian Difference Principle. Kyklos, 29.

Dreze, J. og N. Stern (1987): Theory of Cost-Benefit Analysis. I Auerbach, A. J. og M. Feldstein: Handbook in Public Economics, Vol. 2. Elsevier Science Publishers.

Freeman, M. A. III (1993): The Benefits of Environmental Improvement: Theory and Practice. Resources for the Future.

Hicks, J. R. (1939): The Foundation of Welfare Economics. Economic Journal, 49.

Hylland, Aa og R. Zeckhauser (1979): Distributional Objectives Should Affect Taxes but not Program Choice or Design. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 81.

Johansen, L. (1977): Samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomhet. Industriøkonomisk institutt, Rapport nr.1 1977.

Johansson, P.-O. (1993): Cost-benefit Analysis of Environmental Change. Cambridge University Press.

Kaldor, N. (1939): Welfare Propositions of Economics and Inter-Personal Comparisons of Utility. Economic Journal, 49.

Pedersen, U. (1994): Effektivitetskostnader ved beskatning - en oversikt over og kritisk vurdering av norske og internasjonale anvendte og generelle likevektsmodeller. SNF-rapport 26/94.

Shoven, J. B. og J. Whalley (1992): Applying General Equilibrium. Cambridge University Press.

Kapittel 5

Bohm, P. (1972): Estimating Demand for Public Goods: An Experiment. European Economic Review, 3.

Coase, R. H. (1960): The Problem of Social Cost. Journal of Law and Economics, 3.

Clarke, E. (1971): Multipart Pricing of Public Goods. Public Goods, 8.

Groves, T. og M. Loeb (1975): Incentives and Public Inputs. Journal of Public Economics, 4.

Johansen, L. (1977): The Theory of Public Goods: Misplaced Emphasis? Journal of Public Economics, 7.

Laffont, J. -J. (1987): Incentives and the Allocation of Public Goods. I Auerbach, A. J. og M. Feldstein: Handbook in Public Economics, Vol. 2. Elsevier Science Publishers.

Samuelson, P. A. (1954): The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure. Review of Economics and Statistics, 36.

Vickrey, W. (1961): Contraspeculation, Auctions and Competitive Sealed Tenders. Journal of Finance, 16.

Kapittel 6

Aschauer, R. (1989): Is Public Expenditure Productive? Journal of Monetary Economics, 1989.

Borge, L. E. og R. Torvik (1993): Ny vekstteori: En smakebit på modellformuleringer og resultater. Norsk Økonomisk Tidsskrift, 107.

Calmfors, L. og H. Horn (1985): Classical Unemployment, Accomodation Policies and the Adjustments of Real Wages. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 87.

Dahl, S. Å., H. T. Hansen, T. Lensberg og U. Pedersen (1991): Samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomhet av yrkesmessig attføring - En empirisk litteraturstudie. SNF-rapport 37/91.

Dasgupta, P. og J. E. Stiglitz (1974): Benefit-Cost Analysis and Trade Policies. Journal of Political Economy, 82.

Diamond, P. og J. A: Mirrlees (1971): Optimal Taxation and Public Production I: Production Efficiency og II: Tax Rules. American Economic Review, 61.

Diamond, P. og J. A. Mirrlees (1976): Private Constant Returns and Public Shadow Prices. Review of Economic Studies, 43.

Dixit, A. (1985): Tax Policy in Open Economies. I Auerbach, A. J. og M. Feldstein: Handbook in Public Economics, Vol. 1. Elsevier Science Publishers.

Dreze, J. og N. Stern (1987): Theory of Cost-Benefit Analysis. I Auerbach, A. J. og M. Feldstein: Handbook in Public Economics, Vol. 2. Elsevier Science Publishers.

Griliches, Z. (1992): The Search for R&D Spillovers. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 94.

Griliches, Z. (1996): R&D and Productivity: Econometric Results and Measurement Issues. I Stoneman, P. (red.): Handbook of the Economics of Innovation and Technological Change. Blackwell. Oxford.

Guesnerie, R. (1980): Second-best Pricing Rules in the Boiteux Tradition. Journal of Public Economics, 13.

Hagen, K. P. (1988): Optimal Shadow Prices for Public Production. Journal of Public Economics, 35.

Hoel, M. (1993): Should a Carbon Tax be Differentiated Across Sectors. Memo. from Dept. of Ecs., UiO.

Holden, S. (1996): Strukturledighet og stabiliseringspolitikk. Norsk Økonomisk Tidsskrift, 110.

Holtz-Eakin, D. og M. E. Lovely (1996): Technological Linkages, Market Structure and Production Policies. Journal of Public Economics, 61.

Klette, T. J. (1996): Investeringer i realkapital, forskning og utdanning som kilder til industriell vekst. I V. D. Norman (red.), Næringspolitikk og økonomisk utvikling. Universitetsforlaget.

Krugman, P. R. (1991): Geography and Trade. MIT Press.

Krugman, P. R. (1994): Peddling Prosperity. MIT Press.

Layard, R., S. Nickell og R. Jackman (1991): Unemployment. Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market. Oxford University Press.

Little, I. M. D. og J. A. Mirrlees (1969): Manual of Industrial Project Analysis in Developing Countries, Vol 2. OECD.

Norman, V. (1996): Teori om næringsklynger. Vedlegg til NOU 1996:17.

Norman, V. og S. P. Strandenes (1994): Deregulation of Scandinavian Airlines: A case of the Oslo-Stockholm Route. I P. Krugman og M. A. Smith (red.) Empirical Studies of Strategic Trade Policy. Chicago University Press. Chicago.

NOU 1996: 9: Grønne skatter - en politikk for bedre miljø og høy sysselsetting.

NOU 1996: 17: I Norge - for tiden?Schulze, C. (1990): The Federal Budget and the Nation's Economic Health. I Aaron, H. (red.): Setting National Priorities. Policy for the Nineties. The Brookings Institution.

Sen, A.K. (1972): Shadow Prices and Markets. The Economic Journal, 82.

Winston, C. (1991): Efficient Transportation Infrastructure Policy. Journal of Economic Perspectives.

Kapittel 7

Atkinson, A. B. og N. H. Stern (1974): Pigou, Taxation and Public Goods. Review of Economic Studies, 41.

Ballard, C. L., D. Fullerton, J. B. Shoven og J. Whalley (1985): A General Equilibrium Model for Tax Policy Evaluation. University of Chicago Press.

Bovenberg, A. L. (1990): The Integration of Macro- and Microeconomic Relations in Dynamic Policy Models - The Case of Saving and Investment Behaviour. IMF Working Paper no. 35/1990.

Brendemoen, A. og H. Vennemo (1993a): The Marginal Cost of Funds in the Presence of External Effects. SSB, Discussion Paper no. 99.

Brendemoen, A. og H. Vennemo (1996): The Marginal Cost of Public Funds in the Presence of Environmental Externalities. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 98.

Brendemoen, A. og H. Vennemo (1993b): Hva koster det å øke skattene? Økonomiske analyser nr. 8-1993.

Bråthen, S., A. Hervik, E. Nesset, L. Bræin og Ø. Sunde (1995): Erfaringer med bompengeprosjekter. Møreforsking.

Bugten, T. (1996): A Dynamic CGE Analysis of the Norwegian Tax System. SNF-rapport 39/96.

Dagsvik, J. og S. Strøm (1992): Labour Supply with Non-Convex Budget Sets, Hours Restriction and Non-Pecuniary Job-Attributes. SSB, Discussion Paper no. 76.

Farrell, M. J. (1958): In Defence of Public-Utility Price Theory. Oxford Economic Papers, 10.

Hagen, K. P. (1979): Optimal Pricing in Public Firms. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 81.

Hansson, I. (1984): Marginal Cost of Public Funds for Different Tax Instruments and Government Expenditures. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 86.

Holmøy, E. og B. Strøm (1997): Samfunnsøkonomiske kostnader av offentlig ressursbruk og ulike finansieringsformer - beregninger basert på en disaggregert generell likevektsmodell.

Holtsmark, B., G. Sander og H. Vennemo (1991): Er egentlig veginvesteringer på Østlandet så lønnsomme? Sosialøkonomen, nr. 6 1991.

Håkonsen, L. og L. Mathiesen (1997): Samfunnsøkonomiske kostnader ved økt offentlig ressursbruk. En analyse basert på en enkel generell likevektsmodell. SNF-rapport 32/97.

Jorgenson, D. W. og P. Wilcoxen (1989): Environmental Regulation and U.S. Economic Growth. Harvard Discussion Paper no. 1458.

Jorgenson, D. W. og K. Y. Yun (1991): The Excess Burden of Taxation in the U.S. Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance, 6.

NOU 1996: 9: Grønne skatter - en politikk for bedre miljø og høy sysselsetting.

Osland, L. (1996): Skatteanalyse i en overlappende generasjonsmodell. Hovedoppgave i sosialøkonomi, UiB.

Pedersen, U. (1994): Effektivitetskostnader ved beskatning - en oversikt over og kritisk vurdering av norske og internasjonale anvendte og generelle likevektsmodeller. SNF-rapport 26/94.

Tobin, J. (1970): On Limiting the Domain of Inequality. Journal of Law and Economics, 13.

Vennemo, H. (1991): An Applied General Equilibrium Assessment of the Marginal Cost of Public Funds in Norway. SSB, Discussion Paper no. 62.

Vennemo, H. (1991): The Marginal Cost of Public Funds: A Comment on the Litterature. SSB, Discussion Paper no. 63.

Aaberge, R., J. Dagsvik og S. Strøm (1990): Labour Supply, Income and Excess Burden of Personal Income Taxation in Norway. SSB, Discussion Paper no. 54.

Aaberge, R., J. Dagsvik og S. Strøm (1995): Labour Supply Responses and Welfare Effects of Tax Reforms. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 97.

Kapittel 8

Hagen, K. P. og A. Sandmo (1983): Kalkulasjonsrente og prosjektvurdering. Universitetsforlaget.

Hall, R. E. og F. S. Mishkin (1982): The Sensivity of Consumption to Transitory Income: Estimates from Panel Datas on Households. Econometrica, 50.

Hagen, K. P., S. Ekern, T. Johnsen og U. Pedersen (1992): Det offentlige som investor. SNF-rapport 92/92.

Johnsen, T. (1996): Avkastningskrav ved vurdering av lønnsomheten i statlig eiet forretningsdrift. SNF-rapport 90/96.

Roll, R. (1970): The Behavior of Interest Rates: An Application of the Efficient Market Model to U.S. Treasury Bills. Basic Books, New York.

Sandmo, A. og J. H. Dréze (1971): Discount Rates for Public Investment in Closed and Open Economies. Economica, 38.

Sen, A. K. (1967): Isolation, Assurance and the Social Rate of Discount. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 81.

Kapittel 9

Brealey, R. og S. Myers (1984): Principles of Corporate Finance. McGraw-Hill International Book Company.

Copeland, T. E. og J. F. Weston (1988): Financial Theory and Corporate Policy. Addison Wesley Publishing Company.

Fama, E. F. (1977): Ris k-Adjusted Discount Rates and Capital Budgeting under Uncertainty. Journal of Financial Economics, 5.

Halleraker, M. (1995): Behandling av risiko i nytte-kostnadsanalyser - en prinsipputredning. SNF-rapport 41/95.

Johnsen, T. (1996): Avkastningskrav ved vurdering av lønnsomheten i statlig eiet forretningsdrift. SNF-rapport 90/96.

Mayers, D. (1972): Non-Marketable Assets and the Capital Equilibrium under Uncertainty. I M. C. Jensen (red.) Studies in the Theory of Capital Markets. Praeger Publishers, New York.

Sandmo, A. (1972): Discount Rates for Public Investments under Uncertainty. International Economic Review, 13.

Kapittel 10

Bockstael, N. E. , K. E. McConnel, I. E. Strand (1991): «Recreation«. I J. B. Braden og C. D. Kolstad (1991).

Brekke, K. A. (1993): Do Cost-Benefit Analysis Favor Environmentalists? Discussion Paper nr. 84. Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. (En norsk fremstilling er gitt i K. A. Brekke og A. Bruvoll (1994): Måleeininga er viktig i nytte-kostnadsanalysar. Sosialøkonomen nr 11/94.)

Chase, S. B. (1968): Problems in Public Expenditure Analysis .Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Desvouges, W. H. m.fl. (1992): Measuring Nonuse Damages Using Contingent Valuation: An Experimental Evaluation of Accuracy. North Carolina Research Triangle Institute Monograph.

Diamond, P. A. og J. A. Hausman (1994): Contingent Valuation: Is Some Number Better than No Number? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 8, nr. 4.

Freeman, M. A. III (1993): The Benefits of Environmental Improvement: Theory and Practice. Resources for the Future.

Fridstrøm, L. (1992): «Stated Preference» - eller økonomi som eksperimentalvitenskap. Sosialøkonomen nr. 2/92.

Hanemann, M. W. (1991): Willingness To Pay and Willingness To Accept: How Much Can They Differ?The American Economic Review, Vol. 81, nr.3.

Hanemann, M. W. (1994): Valuing the Environment through Contingent Valuation. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 8, nr. 4.

Harrison, D. og D. L. Rubinfeld (1978): Hedonic Housing Prices and the Demand for Clean Air. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 5, nr. 2.

Heiberg, A., og K. G. Hem (1988): Tiltaksanalyse for indre Oslofjord: En sammenlikning av 3 forskjellige analysemetoder. Oslo: NTNF-rapport 880105.

Hervik, A., M. Risnes, og J. Strand (1986): Betalingsvillighet for vern av vassdrag i forbindelse med Samlet Plan. Sosialøkonomen nr. 1/86.

Johansen, L. (1977): Samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomhet. Rapport nr.1. Oslo: Industriøkonomisk institutt.

Johansson, P. -O. (1992): Altruism in Cost-Benefit Analysis. Environmetnal and Resource Economics 2.

Johansson, P. -O. (1993): Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johansson, P. -O. (1994): Altruism and the Value of Statistical Life: Empirical Implications. Journal of Health Economics 13.

Jones-Lee, M. W. (1991): Altruism and the Value of Other People's Safety. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 4.

Kahneman, D. og J. Knetsch (1992): Valuing Public Goods: The Purchase of Moral Satisfaction. Journal of Environemtnal Economics and Management 22.

Kahneman, D., I. Ritov, K. E. Jacowitz og P. Grant (1993): Stated Willingness to Pay for Public Goods: A Psychological Perspective. Psychological Science.

Keeney, R. L., og H. F. Raiffa (1976 ): Decisions with Multiple Objectives: Preferences and Value Tradeoffs. New York: Wiley.

Kelman, S. (1981): Cost-Benefit Analysis. An Ethical Critique. Regulation, January/February.

Krutilla, J. V. (1967): Conservation reconsidered. American Economic Review 77.

Lave, L., og E. Seskin (1979): Air Pollution and Human Health. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Milgrom, P. (1993): «Is Symphaty an Economic Value? Philosophy, Economics, and the Contingent Valuation Method.« Kapittel XI i J.A. Hausman (red.)(1993): Contingent Valuation: A Critical Assessment. New York: North-Holland.

Mitchell, R. C., og R. T. Carson (1989): Using Surveys to Value Public Goods. Washington: Resources for the Future.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (1993): Report of the NOAA Panel on Contingent Valuation. Federal Register/Vol. 58, no.10.

Navrud, S., og J. Strand (1992): «Norway«. Kap. 6 i Navrud, S. (red.): Pricing the European Environment .Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Navrud, S. (1993): Miljøprising - fremtidens beslutningsverktøy? LØF nr.3/93.

Norheim, B., og M. Kolbenstvedt (1991): Etterspørsel etter kollektivtrafikk til Gardermoen. Notat 971. Oslo: Transportøkonomisk institutt.

NOU 1996: 9: Grønne skatter - en politikk for bedre miljø og høy sysselsetting.

Palmquist, R. B. (1991): «Hedonic Methods.« I Braden J. B. og C. D. Kolstad (1991).

Portney, P. R. (1994): The Contingent Valuation Debate: Why Economists Should Care. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 8, nr. 4.

Schkade, D. A., og J. W. Payne (1993): «Where Do the Numbers Come From?« I J.A. Hausman (red.)(1993): Contingent Valuation: A Critical Assessment . New York: North-Holland.

Willig, R. E. (1976): Consumer's Surplus Without Apology. American Economic Review 66.

Kapittel 11

Algers, S. (1991): Samordnade tidsverdistudier i Norden - Ett diskusjonsunderlag - Desember 1991.

Algers S., Hugosson, B. og Dillén, J.L. (1995): 1994 års tidsvärdestudie, Transek september 1995.

Bates, J. (1991): The British Value of Time Study, Paper Presented at the Nordic Seminar on the Value of Travel Time, Dec. 2-3 1991, Majvik, Finland.

Bowman, L. A. og M. A. Turnquist (1981): Service Frequency, Schedule Reliability and Passenger Wait Times at Transit Stops. Transportation Research, 15 A.

Bruzelius, N. (1978): The Value of Time - Theory and Measurement. Skrift Nr. 1978.3, Nationalekonomiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.

DeSerpa, A. J. (1971): A Theory of the Economics of Time. The Economic Journal, Vol. 81.

Fridstrøm, L. (1990): Bilisters vegvalg og tidsvurdering. TØI-notat 942/1990.

Hensher, D. (1987): Valuation in Journey Attributes: Some Existing Empirical Evidence in Determinants of Travel Choice, red. av D. A. Hensher and Q. Dalvi. New York.

Hervik, A. (1991): Tidskostnader i hovedflyplassprosjektet. Møreforsking.

Hervik, A. og S. Bråten (1992): Samfunnsøkonomiske lønnsomhetsanalyser for bru/tunnel eller bedret ferjetilbud; en kritisk gjenomgang av forutsetning og metoder i praktisk analysearbeid. Møreforsking.

Hervik, A., E. Nesset og S. Bråthen (1996): Gir infrastruktur næringsøkonomisk vekst? Infrastruktur og næringsøkonomisk utvikling i et samfunnsøkonomisk perspektiv. Rapport nr. 9605, Møreforsking.

Hjelle, H. (1989): En modell for bilisters vegvalg. TØI-notat 899/1989.

Norman, V. og S. P. Strandenes (1994): Deregulation of Scandinavian Airlines: A Case of the Oslo-Stockholm Route. I P. Krugman og M. A. Smith (red.) Empirical Studies of Strategic Trade Policy. Chicago University Press. Chicago.

Oort, C. (1969): The Evaluation of Travel Time, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy. Volume 3.

Ramjerdi, F. (1996): The Norwegian Value of Time Study - Some Preliminary Results (notat)

Tretvik, T. (1992): The Toll Road Alternative: Variations in Choice Behaviour and Value of Time. Paper presented at the 6th World Conference on Transport Research.

Kapittel 12

Blomquist, G. og Miller, T.R. (1992): Valuations of Life and Time by Motorist Use of Protection Equipment. Upublisert manuskript. Department of Economics, University of Kentucky og The Urban Institute, Washington D.C. Broome, J. (1978): Trying to value a life. Journal of Public Economics, 9.

Cropper, M. L. og Sussman, F. G. (1988): Families and the Economics of Risks to Life. American Economic Review, 78.

Dahl, Ø. (1995): Verdsetting av Liv og Helse. Sosialøkonomisk institutt, UiO.

Dardis, R. (1980): The Value of Life: Evidence from the Marketplace. American Economic Review, 70.

Elvik, R. (1993): Økonomisk verdsetting av velferdstap ved trafikkulykker. TØI-rapport 203/93.

Harsanyi, J. C. (1955): Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility. Journal of Political Economy, 73.

Ippolito, P. M. 0g Ippolito, R. A. (1984): Measuring the Value of Life Saving from Consumer Reactions to new Information. Journal of Public Economics, 25.

Jones-Lee, M. W. (1989): The Economics of Safety and Physical Risk. Oxford.

Jones-Lee, M. W. (1991): Altruism and the Value of Other People's Safety. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 4.

Jones-Lee, M. W., Hammerton, M. og Abbott (1983): The Valuation of Transport Safety: Results of a National Sample Survey. Report to the UK Department of Transport.

Jones-Lee, M. W., Hammerton, M. og Philips, P. R. (1985): The Value of Safety: Results of a National Sample Survey. Economic Journal, 95.

Kahneman, D. og Tversky, A. (1984): Choices, Values and Frames. American Psychologist 39 (4).

Kaplan, R. M. (1995): Utility Assessment for Estimating Quality-Adjusted Life Years. I Sloan, F. A.: Valuing Health Care. Cost, Benefits and Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical and Other Medical Technologies. Cambridge University Press.

Kreps, D. M. (1990): A Course in Microeconomic Theory. Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Krupnick, A. J. og Cropper, M. L. (1992): The Effect of Information on Health Risk Valuations. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 5.

Kunreuther, H. og Easterling, D. (1990): Are Risk-Benefit Trade-Offs Possible in Siting Hazardeous Facilities? American Economic Review, 80

Maier, G., Gerking, S. og Weiss, P. (1989): The Economics of Traffic Accidents on Austrian Rroads: Risk Lovers or Policy Deficit? Austrian Economic Papers, 16..

Marin, A. og Psacharopoulos, G (1982): The Reward for Risk in the Labour Market: Evidence from the United States and a Reconciliation with Other Studies. Journal of Political Economy, 90.

Miller, T. R. og Guria, J. (1991): The Value of Statistical Life in New Zealand. Market Research on Road Safety. Land Transport Division, Ministry of Transport, Wellington.

Moore, M. J. og Viscusi, W. K. (1988): The Quantity-Adjusted Value of Life. Economic Inquiry, 27.

Needleman, L. (1976): Valuing Other People's Lives. The Manchester School, 44.

Nord, E. (1992): Methods for Quality Adjustment of Life Years. Social Science and Medicine 34(5).

Persson, U. og Cedervall, M. (1991): The Value of Risk Reduction: Results from a Swedish Sample Survey. IHE Working paper 1991:6.

Richardson, J. (1991): Economic Assessment of Health Care: Theory and Practice. Australian Economic Review 81(93).

Schelling, T. C. (1968): The Life You Save May Be Your Own. I Chase, S. B. (red): Problems in Public Expenditure Analysis. The Brookings Institution.

Schwab, N. og Soguel, N. (1991): Evaluation des Côut Humains Généres par les Accidents: Examen Critique des Méthodes Axe en Particulier sur l'Evaluation Contingente. Report no. 30, Institut de Recherces Economiques et Régionales, Université de Neuchatel.

Smith, V. K. og Gilbert, C. S. (1984): The Implicit Valuation of Risks to Life: A Comparative Analysis. Economic Letters, 16.

Tobin, J. (1970): On Limiting the Domain of Inequality. Journal of Law and Economics, 12.

Tversky, A., Slovic, P. og Kahneman, D. (1990): The Causes of preference reversals.American Economic Review 80(1).

Viscusi, W. K., Magat, W. A og Huber, J. (1991): Pricing Environmental Health Risks: Survey Assessments of Risk-Risk and Risk-Dollar Trade-Offs for Chronic Bronchitis. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 21.

Weinstein, M. C. (1995): From Cost-Effectiveness Ratios to Resource Allocation: Where to Draw the Line? I Sloan, F. A.: Valuing Health Care: Cost, Benefits and Effectiveness of Pharmaceutical and Other Medical Technologies. Cambridge University Press.

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