Article | Last updated: 16/10/2013
THE JOINT MODEL
To achieve an ambitious outcome in Copenhagen financing will need to be scaled up significantly and urgently, starting fast and rising over time. Mexico and Norway now launch a joint model (see chart) that has the potential for substantially increasing the amount of predictable funding available for climate change actions in developing countries, enabling developing countries to move towards a more climate resilient development path. The goal is to establish the Green Fund by deciding on the framework during the ongoing Copenhagen climate summit.
SCALE AND FINANCIAL SOURCES
Box A – Agreed scale of comparable and predictable funding
- The objective of the model is to enhance the certainty and predictability of climate finance and guarantee the availability of adequate and sufficient resources. As an indication, the scale of the Green Fund could start at around 10 bn USD per year in 2012 and increase to 30-40 bn USD in 2020. Contributions to the Green Fund may come from different complementary sources of financing: budget funding, international and domestic auctioning of allowances, and other comparable sources, and should go to both mitigation and adaptation efforts. Because the value of the allowances would depend on market prices, there is some uncertainty about the level of annual contributions from allowance auctioning. However, the uncertainty would be substantially reduced by establishing a buffer between auctioning and disbursements.
Box B – Budget funding/ other methods
- Budget contributions that are decided according to a scale based on responsibility (emissions) and capability will go strictly to result based mitigation actions in developing countries. All countries would contribute except the least developed, and developing countries would be net beneficiaries.
- Countries may also use other methods to raise comparable levels of budget funding.
Box C- International Auctioning
- When countries - as part of a UN climate agreement - set a limit on their emissions of greenhouse gases, emission allowances become valuable. These allowances - or assigned amount units (AAUs) - may be seen as the collective property of the parties to the agreement. To increase the scale of the Green Fund, Mexico and Norway propose to set aside a certain proportion of the total UN-allowances for auctioning at the international level to support both mitigation and adaptation efforts with fixed percentages for each.
Box D- Auctioning – countries with non-Kyoto like commitments
- Countries without Kyoto-type commitments (UN allowances), which have national cap and trade systems and have facilitated auctioning for international purposes through national legislation, may also contribute to the Green Fund through auctioning of national allowances.
Box E – Result based mitigation actions/ REDD+
- Funding for mitigation actions, including REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation), should primarily be delivered through result based mechanisms, for fully additional verified emission reductions relative to predetermined agreed reference levels. Such incentives would allow further actions from developing countries based on the number of tons of emissions either avoided or captured. Developing countries would be expected to mobilize domestic resources to help finance efforts in their own countries, subject to their respective capabilities.
Box F – Adaptation actions
- In the area of adaptation the most vulnerable countries will be given priority, as well as the least developed countries and small island developing states.
Box G – Governance
- The Green Fund should have a high-level board under the policy guidance of, and accountable to, the Conference of the Parties, with equal representation of developed and developing countries, and an equitable, efficient and transparent governance structure.
- To ensure rapid start-up and efficiency, the administration of the Green Fund could be entrusted to an existing international financial institution that could deliver funding in partnership with domestic and international public and private financial institutions.