Programme area 03 - International aid - 2013

Published under: Stoltenberg's 2nd Government

Publisher Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Expenses by programme category

The proposal for 2013 brings the aid budget to 1 % of the estimated gross national income. The Government will continue the priority areas from 2012, primarily with regard to forests, renewable energy and adaptation to climate change with special focus on agriculture.

 

       

(in NOK 1 000)

Cat.

Description

Accounts 2011

Approved budget 2012

Proposed 2013

03.00

Administration of development assistance

1 350 081

1 368 500

1 454 900

03.10

Bilateral assistance

4 288 279

4 325 300

3 838 300

03.20

Global schemes

14 814 667

15 512 085

17 998 500

03.30

Multilateral assistance

6 595 621

6 629 000

6 916 500

 

Total programme area 03

27 048 648

27 834 885

30 208 200

 

The Government proposes an allocation of NOK 30 208.2 million to international development cooperation in 2013.

The proposal for 2013 brings the aid budget to 1 % of the estimated gross national income. The Government will continue the priority areas from 2012, primarily with regard to forests, renewable energy and adaptation to climate change with special focus on agriculture. The Government also proposes strengthening efforts targeting women’s and children’s health by increasing funding for the GAVI Alliance, follow-up of the UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children, and family planning measures.

In 2012, the Government presented Meld. St. 11 (2011-2012) Report to the Storting (white paper) Global health in foreign and development policy, which discusses perspectives up until 2020. Meld. St. 14 (2010–2011) Report to the Storting (white paper) Towards greener development: On a coherent environmental and development policy supplements the guiding principles set out in Meld. St. 13 (2008-2009) Report to the Storting (white paper) Climate, conflict and capital. These three white papers and the respective recommendations from the Storting form the basis of the Government’s development policy. The overall goal to achieve poverty reduction and sustainable development remains in place, with efforts to combat climate change, hunger and poverty and to promote better health and equality, the right to economic development, democracy, food security, the equitable distribution of resources and opportunities, and human rights as its essential components.

In a recommendation of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs (Recommendation S. No. 269 (2008–2009) to the Storting), the Storting asked the Government to explore the possibility of establishing a separate programme area for the financing of global public goods. Public goods will be a topic in the international debate on the development agenda after 2015. Norway will participate in this discussion, and the ministry believes it would be most beneficial to further develop these efforts in cooperation with others in the future.

The Millennium Development Goals are to be achieved by 2015. A concerted effort is required in the final two years to ensure that this is possible. At the same time, the UN has initiated a negotiation process to set new goals for the period after 2015. The post-2015 development agenda may become a vital arena for shaping international development policy in the coming years. Norway has set out a good deal of relevant and coherent policy encompassing most of the issues that appear to dominate the current debate in a number of white papers presented in recent years. In particular, Norway has worked actively at the international level to link together environmental and development agendas, in which the synergy between forests, energy access and food security is now being afforded greater attention. Norway is recognised for its position on women’s rights and gender equality in the international debate. Greater equality and more equitable distribution have become key components in this process, and here Norway has important experiences to share from its own history. In addition, Norway will continue to give priority to access to good health services and education.

The Government’s key priority areas for 2013 are described below:

8.1 More equitable distribution and democracy

The overall objective of Norway’s development policy is to fight poverty and achieve more equitable distribution of resources and opportunities. Inequality is increasing dramatically in many countries. As a result, while many developing countries have experienced substantial growth, the degree of poverty reduction has been disappointingly low. Seventy per cent of the world’s poorest people now live in countries that are no longer defined as low-income countries, but have been upgraded to middle-income countries. This phenomenon is especially pronounced in countries that have abundant natural resources and that benefit from the high price of raw materials. This is also the case for several of Norway’s partner countries in Africa. Ensuring that the entire population benefits from economic growth requires political leadership and the establishment of appropriate priorities, and it depends on a number of structural factors. The Government will focus more attention on the inequalities within each country, not just between countries. Reducing inequality is better for everyone in that it raises the level of trust between the inhabitants and prevents conflicts from arising.

In order to pursue an operative distribution policy, government authorities must be able to manage money through an active tax policy and better tax systems. Norwegian tax administration and natural resource management are well respected, and Norway’s experience from these sectors is in demand. For several years Norway has participated in efforts to help to promote more responsible systems for petroleum resource management through the Oil for Development programme. In 2011, the new Tax for Development programme was launched. Taxation of the large revenues derived from petroleum recovery and related industries is important both for economic reasons and to legitimise the taxation of the general population. Norway supports both civil society and governments in their efforts to achieve effective, transparent tax regimes. This initiative is targeted in particular towards Zambia, Mozambique and Tanzania.

The sum of vital capital flows, such as trade, investments and capital flight, is much greater than the amount of development assistance. The aim is to achieve greater use of these capital flows to promote development in areas such as health, education and infrastructure. This will enable poor countries to reduce their dependence on development assistance in the long term.

Issues related to distribution are often closely tied to statebuilding and a democratic form of governance. The Government wishes to fund development activities in which broad segments of the population can advance their interests, also in economic terms. Thus funding will be increased for the establishment of wage-setting systems and the promotion of workers’ rights through the labour movement and social dialogue. Cash transfers to vulnerable groups may be considered. It is important to identify stakeholders in civil society, including within the labour and farmers’ movements, who can promote a more democratic distribution of power and resources. The media has an important role to play in conveying knowledge about social and economic conditions to the relevant stakeholders. Transparency is therefore critical – including with regard to finances – to prevent funds derived from corruption and tax evasion from being hidden in tax havens.

As poverty is becoming a more urban phenomenon, and affects women the most, the Government wishes to expand its support to authorities, institutions and organisations that work at the international, national and local levels to promote forms of governance in urban areas that emphasise equality, environmental concerns and the prevention of humanitarian crises.

Despite the enormous challenges facing youth throughout the world, this group has been overlooked in international development activities. The Government therefore wishes to increase its allocation to UN activities targeted towards young people, including UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon’s youth initiative.

8.2 Climate change and the environment

The Government will continue to allocate parts of the development budget to fight poverty in a way that also addresses global environmental challenges. The Government maintains its ambition to serve as a driving force in international climate efforts. Focus will be placed on conservation of forests, access to clean energy, climate financing and climate adaptation, especially food security and prevention of natural disasters, and preservation of biodiversity.

The Government will work to establish international mechanisms that can mobilise more resources for long-term, predictable funding of climate-related measures in developing countries. Initially it will be important that the industrialised countries keep their promises from the UN Climate Change Conference in Cancún. A key priority area is the follow-up of the decision to establish the Green Climate Fund, a new fund for measures to help developing countries adapt to the impacts of climate change.

In 2007, the Government of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative was launched, in which Norway pledged to allocate up to NOK 3 billion annually for measures to combat deforestation in developing countries. This initiative is based in part on the understanding that the fight against greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation is inextricably linked to poverty reduction and sustainable economic development. In the long run it will be impossible to achieve permanent global reductions in emissions related to deforestation without providing the means for sustainable economic development for the people living in and around the forests. Indonesia has a stated target of reducing emissions amounting to 15 to 25 times Norway’s total emissions by 2020.

The effort to reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in recent years comprises the largest climate measure in the world to date. The reduction of emissions is estimated at one billion tonnes of CO2 per year. To illustrate, this corresponds to Germany’s annual emissions or 20 times Norway’s annual emissions.

Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative has helped to achieve these reductions. Moreover, the initiative has played an important role in raising international awareness of global deforestation and in coordinating and organising the international effort to combat deforestation and forest degradation.

The Government will continue its effort to reduce deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), this is a cost-effective instrument for quickly reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and preserving biodiversity. It is still more profitable to cut down the forest than to let it stand. This weakness in the market can only be resolved through an international regime, including funding, that ensures the forest is given value as a global carbon sink.

Efforts against short-lived climate drivers such as black carbon, methane and ozone have the potential to slow global warming in the short term.

The Government will strengthen climate adaptation efforts in vulnerable countries. Activities relating to food security and prevention of natural disasters will be given priority. As part of the efforts to improve food security, the Government will increase its focus on agricultural development, especially in climate-resilient agriculture in Africa, through both bilateral and multilateral channels. Activities will target areas with high potential for increased food production as well as particularly vulnerable areas. The main challenge is to increase the food production of small-scale farmers, who account for 80 % of food production in developing countries, and to help to reduce food loss, estimated at almost 30 %. The initiative will be targeted in particular towards women small-scale farmers and promoting greater public-private cooperation and research on climate-resilient agriculture. An increase of NOK 500 million is planned for the 2013–2015 period. In 2013, the increase will be up to NOK 200 million, distributed among various budget items.

The lack of gender equality is a major obstacle to increased food production. Women’s rights and opportunities must therefore be realised through policy design, programme development and practical solutions for addressing climate change.

The number of people afflicted by malnutrition, malaria, diarrhoea and infectious diseases as a result of a larger number of more extreme weather events is expected to rise. The Government wishes to strengthen its efforts in this area, in part by highlighting the connection between climate and health, cf. Meld. St. 11 (2011-2012) Report to the Storting (white paper) Global health in foreign and development policy.

The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was held in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. The conference acknowledged the need to increase efforts to promote sustainable development and to achieve better integration between the three dimensions of sustainable development – social, economic and environmental. The conference did not provide answers for all of the challenges this will entail, but it represented progress in several areas. Plans for vital future processes in which Norway will participate were adopted. One of Norway’s prioritised outcomes for the Rio conference was to reach agreement on the development of specific goals for sustainable development based on the model of the Millennium Development Goals. The sustainable development goals are to integrate the three dimensions of sustainable development and are to apply to all countries. The UN General Assembly will appoint a working group consisting of 30 member countries to develop the sustainable development goals. The Government intends to take an active role in these efforts, in particular to develop and promote specific goals for equitable distribution and for gender equality.

8.3 Energy for everyone

The international community is facing challenges that conflict to some degree: on the one hand to provide access to modern forms of energy for the 1.3 billion people who currently do not have this, and on the other, to do it in a way that also reduces harmful greenhouse gas emissions. Eighty per cent of those who do not have access to electricity live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most Norwegian development assistance to the energy sector has been allocated to this region, and the Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries (Norfund) has been a key instrument in this region as well as in other parts of the world. Greater access to energy is needed to motivate the transition to a modern economy in developing countries. Global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly to reach the goal of keeping the global mean temperature rise below 2°C relative to pre-industrial levels. Rich countries have the highest emissions per capita and must therefore achieve the greatest reductions. Support can be provided to low-income countries to help them to develop a renewable energy sector without resorting to fossil energy systems.

Norway’s efforts in this area are directed towards both of these challenges. Norway has increased the access of many poor people to modern energy through bilateral programmes for renewable energy, primarily by funding hydropower development. Support for greater use of clean-burning ovens has had a positive impact on public health and emissions reduction.

The Government’s International Energy and Climate Initiative – Energy+ was launched by Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon at the conference “Energy for All: Financing Access to the Poor” in Oslo in October 2011. The goals are to increase access to renewable energy and enhance energy efficiency as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. One important means of achieving this is to facilitate private investment in the energy sector in developing countries. The Energy+ initiative is comprised of 50 partners, comprising countries, international organisations and funding institutions, private companies and non-governmental organisations. The partnership draws up criteria for performance-based development assistance to the energy sector in developing countries and ensures task sharing among the partners. Both Norway and the UN view the Energy+ initiative as a potentially key instrument for achieving concrete results under the UN Secretary General’s global initiative on Sustainable Energy for All. Norway’s bilateral and multilateral funding to the energy sector in developing countries will support these initiatives. Much of the development assistance to the energy sector in developing countries will be given multilaterally. Relevant programmes under the World Bank and regional development banks, as well as the United Nations Development Programme, will serve as important channels in this context.

Funding for energy-related purposes over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ aid budget is allocated via several different budget items. For the 2013 budget, most of the funding for renewable energy will be consolidated for the first time under a single budget item, in chapter 166, new item 74 Renewable energy. An allocation of slightly more than NOK 2 billion for renewable energy-related purposes is proposed for 2013, an increase of some NOK 250 million from 2012.

8.4 Women’s rights and gender equality 

The fight for women’s rights and gender equality is high on Norway’s development policy agenda. Improving the situation for women requires sweeping attitude change, as well as policy and legislative reform. Women’s rights and gender equality are controversial issues in many countries and international forums, including within the UN. Despite widespread acknowledgment that girls and women are often the targets of discrimination in many areas, it remains difficult to get the need for gender equality fully onto the UN agenda. In recent years the agenda has been subject to increasing pressure, as may be seen in a number of contexts, especially in connection with the political processes related to the Arab Spring and in international negotiations on sexual and reproductive health and rights. Norway must not hesitate to address the full scope of this issue or other issues that may be controversial. This means that Norway must play a major role in the effort to promote health and rights, including the rights of sexual minorities, both in the UN and at the national level. Close, targeted cooperation with like-minded countries and new partners in international forums is crucial for gaining support for these issues.

The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women has been ratified by almost all of the countries with which Norway cooperates, and comprises an important instrument for promoting and protecting women’s rights. The obligations and political objectives of the Convention provide the framework for Norway’s dialogue on gender equality and women’s rights.

Norway seeks results relating to women in its cooperation with the UN, the World Bank and other development banks. The World Bank’s 2012 World Development Report on Gender Equality and Development illustrates the crucial role that women’s economic participation plays in economic growth. The report is an important tool for encouraging decision-makers and other key stakeholders to boost their efforts to improve the situation and rights of women. Women are especially affected by environmental degradation and climate change. Therefore the Government wishes to continue its efforts to strengthen the role and influence of women in natural resource management, climate adaptation and forest-preservation measures, and preparedness for dealing with climate change and natural disasters. Furthermore, the Government will place importance on promoting active participation of women in peacebuilding and conflict prevention. Women are not just the victims of war and conflict. They are key players in generating peace and sustainable development. Women also play a critical part in the new strategy for food security.

8.5 Fragile states, conflict and development

Every society is subject to conflicts of interest, economic challenges, and other social or physical events such as major accidents, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, epidemics or perhaps long-term economic downturns. Most countries have institutions that are charged with, and have plans for, dealing with such situations. A feature of fragile states is that the institutions do not have this kind of capacity, either for daily tasks or for sudden shocks.  Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Haiti, Afghanistan, Liberia and Pakistan are examples of fragile countries with which Norway is engaged.

One and a half billion people live in fragile states, and 70 % of these countries are or have been in conflict between 1989 and the present. The risk of conflict is greater in poor countries than in more resilient states. Conflict also poses an obstacle to sound development. Fragile states lag farthest behind in the push to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. The main priorities for the people in these countries are security for their own lives, employment opportunities and a just court system, and all of these priorities require that the countries develop institutions that can deliver these and many other services.

In 2011, 20 fragile states came together and formed the International Dialogue on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding, a forum in which government authorities and donors meet on equal footing. The forum launched the agreement known as the New Deal, a model for how donors should be engaged in fragile states. This is the first time that fragile states as a group have sought to identify their needs and speak with one voice. Norway is among the 40 states that have signed the new agreement.

Norway supports the principle of distribution of tasks among the donors in fragile states as well. The Government will give priority to areas in which Norway has experience and expertise. These include peacebuilding and statebuilding, natural resource management and distribution policy. While these political projects garner the most attention, the largest proportion of Norwegian development assistance funding in the fragile states is still allocated to traditional development areas, such as humanitarian assistance, civil society, health services and education.

Engagement in fragile states prone to conflict requires perseverance and the willingness to take risks. The development from fragility to resilience is not linear, and Norwegian development assistance activities must be flexible in order to remain in line with the needs of the countries and their people.

8.6 Global health with focus on women’s and children’s rights and health

In 2012, the Government presented Meld. St. 11 (2011-2012) Report to the Storting (white paper) Global health in foreign and development policy. The report sets out clear priorities for a unified Norwegian global health policy up until 2020 through three priority areas: mobilising for women’s and children’s rights and health; reducing the burden of disease with emphasis on prevention; and promoting human security through health. The objective of Norway’s global health policy is to promote basic human rights.

The Millennium Development Goals on health, especially on child and maternal mortality, are among the goals farthest out of reach, although considerable progress is now being made to achieve them. For many years Norway has played an international leadership role in the efforts to fulfil the health-related Millennium Development Goals. The Norwegian prime minister is one of the key movers behind the efforts, which are based on the UN Secretary General’s Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. This has made Norway a central player internationally. In 2012, the activities were closely linked to the UN Commission for Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children, headed by Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg together with President Goodluck Jonathan of Nigeria.

As from 2013, the efforts to follow up the United Nations Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health will be strengthened and consolidated under a large-scale initiative to improve women’s and children’s health. This involves increasing funding for the vaccination of children through the GAVI Alliance, ensuring access to life-saving commodities for women and children, and increasing the availability of family planning services. The initiative is a partnership between public and private players in donor as well as recipient countries. Achieving more health for the money through innovation is an essential feature of the initiative.

The Foreign Policy and Global Health Initiative, launched by the foreign ministers of Norway and Brazil, promotes the incorporation of current challenges in the health sphere into foreign policy. Seven countries participate in the initiative, which seeks to draw attention to the critical role that a more coherent policy that integrates public health into various policy areas as well as international negotiations and processes will play in the ability of countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and safeguard public health. This was a main theme of the presentation by the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the General Assembly of the World Health Organization in 2012.

HIV and AIDS remain a major challenge. Norway actively supports UNAIDS’ increased focus on combating stigmatisation and discrimination. Norway also supports the organisation’s efforts to achieve the global objectives set out at the high-level meeting in 2010 to reduce the number of new HIV/AIDS cases by half and to eliminate mother-to-child transmission by 2015.

8.7 Education 

The international community has set the goal of access for all children to education by 2015. Significant progress has been made in this area as a result of international efforts and greater emphasis on education in many countries. Almost 40 million more children attend school than was the case 10 years ago, and 90 % of all children in developing countries have access to education. The greatest progress has been made in Sub-Saharan Africa, with an increase of 18 %. Figures also show that the gap between the number of boys versus the number of girls who attend school is shrinking, especially at the primary school level. Despite this, there are many challenges that stand in the way of all children learning to read and write. Many children attend school year after year without learning. Greater attention to quality and learning will be needed in the coming effort to set a new global education agenda. At the same time, it is important to recognise that the right to education applies to all and that the final 10 % of children must be reached. This requires a targeted initiative for children in areas experiencing war, conflict and natural disaster, which affect the daily lives of almost half of those without access to education. About 25 million children are denied their right to education on the basis of disability. Many are also excluded on the basis of their ethnic background, culture, language or religion, or because they are poor.

Norway is a major, stable contributor to the global education efforts. More than half of Norwegian education assistance is channelled through multilateral organisations as part of the international effort to increase the effectiveness of development assistance. By taking part in political dialogue and participating in governance processes, Norway will work to ensure that the multilateral development and funding institutions put greater emphasis on education in their strategies. In keeping with the objectives of the Soria Moria II Declaration, the Government will work in particular to enhance efforts in the area of education in areas affected by conflict and natural disaster. In 2013, the Government will allocate approximately NOK 1.6 billion to education in accordance with previously established objectives.

The recently established Norwegian Programme for Capacity Building in Higher Education and Research for Development (NORHED) seeks to strengthen capacity within higher education and research in low- and middle-income countries as a means of reducing poverty and promoting sustainable societal development. Increased capacity refers to a greater ability by institutions in the South to educate more and better qualified candidates who can contribute to social, economic and cultural development, and to increase the quantity and quality of research conducted by the institutions’ own researchers. NORHED has six sub-programmes: education and training; health; natural resource management, climate change and environment; democratic and economic governance; humanities, culture, media and communication; and capacity development in South Sudan. In addition, Norad’s Master Programme for Energy and Petroleum through the Norwegian University of Science and Technology will be continued. Gender equality issues will be incorporated into all of the sub-programmes, which together reflect the priorities of Norwegian development policy.

8.8 UN, humanitarian assistance and human rights

Norway is working to strengthen the UN’s main bodies and to improve the effectiveness and coordination of the UN at the national level in order to achieve good results, address climate challenges and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. In the efforts to reform the UN, Norway takes into account UN mandates, the Secretariat’s organisation, coordination between the various UN organisations and the UN’s effectiveness at the national level. Norway has two primary objectives for the UN reform: to enhance the effectiveness of the UN at the national level and to increase transparency, responsibility and establish clear lines of authority within the UN Secretariat.

Many of the UN’s most important humanitarian and development programmes are completely dependent on volunteer contributions. Norway is among the largest contributors to the UN’s humanitarian and development efforts, including human rights, health, the environment and democratic development. Humanitarian relief and humanitarian assistance will continue to comprise a large and important part of Norway’s development cooperation. The UN is a key organisation, both for the channelling of funding and for addressing humanitarian issues.

Norway gained valuable experience from its membership of the United Nations Human Rights Council in the period from 2009 to 2012, and will expand on this in an active observer role after its period of membership expires. Several positive trends have been evident in the Human Rights Council in recent years with regard to addressing thematically-oriented issues and situations in individual countries, especially in light of the Arab Spring. Norway will continue its efforts to develop support for human rights advocates, promote freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and free media, as well as strengthen women’s rights. Norway will also work to strengthen the rights of internally displaced persons, indigenous peoples and sexual minorities. These efforts are being carried out within the UN as well as in countries with which Norway is engaged. In addition to traditional partners such as the EU and the US, Norway has extensive cooperation with countries in other regions that participate constructively to promote human rights.

8.9 Report on Norwegian development cooperation in 2011

In 2011, the Government continued to enhance the strategic aspects of its development policy with a focus on areas in which Norway has a role to play in light of the demand for its knowledge and expertise. Under the thematic umbrella of climate, conflict and capital, emphasis was placed on implementing targeted initiatives to direct Norwegian development policy towards helping to strengthen the position of the poor and facilitate sustainable development. This report focuses mainly on the amount and distribution of development assistance in 2011 and on activities to follow up the priority areas. More detailed information about the results of development cooperation is available from the various programme categories. A summary of results at the national level is also published on Norad’s country pages at Norad.no.

ODA-approved development assistance in 2011

In 2011, a total of NOK 27.7 billion was allocated over the aid budget. Allocations in 2011 equal 1 % of gross national income. 

Table 8.1 Total ODA-approved development assistance by type of assistance, 2008-2011 (in NOK billion)

Type of assistance

2008

 

2009

 

2010

 

2011

 

Country and/or sector-specific assistance¹

15.6

68 %

18.0

70 %

19.8

72 %

19.5

71 %

Core funding to multilateral organisations²

6.0

26 %

6.3

24 %

6.4

23 %

6.6

24 %

Administration

1.2

5 %

1.4

5 %

1.5

5 %

1.5

5 %

Total

22.9

100 %

25.6

100 %

27.7

100 %

27.7

100 %

1 Corresponds to bilateral and multi-bilateral assistance.
2 Corresponds to multilateral assistance.

As shown in the table above, Norwegian development assistance in the past four years has been distributed relatively evenly between multilateral assistance and assistance earmarked for specific countries or sectors. A large share of the sector-specific assistance was also channelled through multilateral actors, which as a group administer roughly half of the total aid budget. 

Table 8.2 Total bilateral development assistance by main region, 2008-2011 (in NOK billion); includes bilateral and multi-bilateral assistance 

Main region

2008

 

2009

 

2010

 

2011

 

Africa

5.9

38 %

5.7

32 %

5.7

29 %

6.1

31 %

America

0.8

5 %

0.9

5 %

2.6

13 %

2.4

12 %

Asia and Oceania

2.9

19 %

2.7

15 %

3.2

16 %

2.8

14 %

Europe

0.6

4 %

0.6

4 %

0.7

3 %

0.7

3 %

Middle East

0.9

6 %

0.8

5 %

0.9

5 %

0.9

5 %

Global unspecified

4.4

28 %

7.2

40 %

6.7

34 %

6.7

34 %

Total

15.6

100 %

18.0

100 %

19.8

100 %

19.5

100 %

The table provides an overview of the distribution of total bilateral development assistance by main region. Not taking into account the impact of the large-scale forest initiative in Brazil in 2010, the geographic distribution of development assistance has been relatively stable. As in previous years, Africa was the region that received the greatest share of bilateral assistance in 2011. Expenses related to refugees in Norway are included in “Global unspecified”. Development assistance that is not distributed geographically also encompasses thematically earmarked funding through multilateral organisations. The UN organisations distribute such funding in accordance with guidelines that Norway has approved through its participation on committees and that give priority to countries facing the greatest challenges within the mandate of the individual organisation. In practice, compliance with the guidelines means that most of the funding from the UN organisations is allocated to low-income countries, the majority of which are located in Africa. Dialogue and guidelines related to development assistance have been used to ensure that a large share of the thematic support that is channelled through multilateral funding institutions is allocated to the poorest countries in Africa.

In 2011, recipients in 112 countries could be tied to some form of Norwegian development assistance. For most of these, the support was limited in scope and includes individual project funding through Norwegian NGOs and loan forgiveness for international students. For 29 countries, bilateral Norwegian development assistance comprised NOK 100 million or more. The recipients of the largest share of Norwegian development assistance were allocated funding from different budget items, support for various purposes and through many channels. As in previous years, fragile states such as South Sudan, the Palestinian territories and Afghanistan received the largest share of Norwegian development assistance in 2011. In addition to funding from regional allocations, these countries also receive humanitarian assistance and support through the global allocations for peace and reconciliation, civil society and transition assistance (South Sudan). Brazil received the most Norwegian development assistance in 2011, due primarily to the forest initiative. A debt instrument of NOK 1 billion was issued to Brazil.

Table 8.3 Development assistance by type of agreement partner, 2008-2011 (in NOK million); includes bilateral, multi-bilateral and multilateral assistance

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

Public stakeholders

4 640

21 %

5 695

23 %

7 076

27 %

6 255

24 %

Public stakeholders in developing countries

2 173

10 %

2 111

9 %

3 506

13 %

2 808

11 %

Public stakeholders in Norway

2 224

10 %

3 326

14 %

3 342

13 %

2 973

11 %

Public stakeholders in other donor countries

243

1 %

258

1 %

229

1 %

474

2 %

Private sector

556

3 %

854

4 %

735

3 %

1 344

5 %

Private sector in Norway

178

1 %

175

1 %

182

1 %

363

1 %

Private sector in other countries

292

1 %

567

2 %

347

1 %

820

3 %

Consultants

86

0 %

113

0 %

206

1 %

160

1 %

NGOs/foundations

4 932

23 %

5 412

22 %

5 600

21 %

5 901

23 %

Norwegian

3 493

16 %

3 566

15 %

3 620

14 %

3 515

13 %

International

806

4 %

1 080

4 %

1 156

4 %

1 465

6 %

Local

633

3 %

766

3 %

824

3 %

921

4 %

Multilateral organisations

11 277

52 %

12 127

50 %

12 651

48 %

12 515

48 %

Public-private cooperation

136

1 %

105

0 %

116

0 %

92

0 %

Unspecified

99

0 %

43

0 %

50

0 %

53

0 %

Total

21 640

100 %

24 237

100 %

26 229

100 %

26 160

100 %

The table illustrates the distribution in 2011 of the total amount of development assistance, excluding administrative costs, by category of stakeholder with responsibility for implementation. Due to the ODA-approved refugee expenses in Norway, this category of Norwegian public stakeholder appears as a large channel for development assistance.

Table 8.4 Multilateral organisations: recipients of the largest share of Norwegian development assistance in 2011, 2008-2011 (in NOK billion)

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

UNDP - UN Development Programme

1.8

2.0

2.1

2.0

UNICEF- United Nations Children's Fund

1.2

1.3

1.3

1.3

UN other

3.3

3.6

3.7

3.7

World Bank Group

2.6

2.6

2.9

2.9

Regional development banks

0.9

0.9

0.9

0.8

GAVI Alliance

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.4

GFATM - Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tub and Malaria

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.5

Other multilateral organisations

0.7

0.9

0.9

1.0

Total

11.3

12.1

12.7

12.5

The UN system received the most funding among all of the multilateral players. More than 80 % of the funding was allocated to 10 organisations. In 2011, the UNDP was the largest recipient of Norwegian development assistance with a sum of NOK 2 billion, of which general funding/core funding comprised NOK 770 million.

Of the NOK 1.31 billion allocated to UNICEF, core funding comprised NOK 450 million.

Table 8.5 Norwegian NGOs: the six recipients of the most Norwegian development assistance in 2011, 2008-2011 (in NOK million) 

 

2008

2009

2010

2011

Norwegian Refugee Council

476

452

552

525

Norwegian Red Cross

415

435

473

456

Norwegian Church Aid

489

453

469

408

Norwegian People’s Aid

385

385

344

365

Save the Children Norway

223

218

200

183

Digni

142

143

145

151

Other

1 363

1 480

1 436

1 427

Total

3 493

3 566

3 620

3 515

In 2011, 13 % of the total aid budget was channelled through Norwegian NGOs. The four largest organisations received over half of this funding. Funding is allocated from many different budget chapters/items depending on the purpose of support. The grant schemes for civil society and humanitarian relief/humanitarian assistance account for the largest proportion of the total amount. For a more detailed overview, please refer to the attachments showing development assistance administered by Norwegian NGOs/foundations divided by budget chapter and item.