Convention Norway - Turkey

Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and the Republic of Turkey for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on Income.

The Government of the Kingdom of Norway and the Government of the Republic of Turkey

desiring to conclude a Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to taxes on income,

have agreed as follows:

Article 1

Persons Covered

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

Taxes Covered

  1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political subdivisions or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
  2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises, as well as taxes on capital appreciation.

  3. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are in particular:

    1. in the case of Norway:

      1. the tax on general income;

      2. the tax on personal income;

      3. the special tax on petroleum income;

      4. the resource rent tax on income from production of hydroelectric power;

      5. the withholding tax on dividends; and

      6. the tax on remuneration to non-resident artistes, etc.;

        (hereinafter referred to as ”Norwegian tax”);

    2. in the case of Turkey:

      1. the income tax; and

      2. the corporation tax;

      (hereinafter referred to as ”Turkish tax”).

  4. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their taxation laws.

Article 3

General Definitions

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:

      1. the term “Norway” means the Kingdom of Norway, and includes the land territory, internal waters, the territorial sea and the area beyond the territorial sea where the Kingdom of Norway, in accordance with international law, may exercise her rights with respect to the seabed and subsoil and their natural resources; the term does not comprise Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian dependencies (“biland”);
      2. the term ”Turkey” means the Turkish territory including territorial sea as well as the maritime areas over which it has jurisdiction or sovereign rights for the purpose of exploration, exploitation and conservation of natural resources, pursuant to international law;

    1. the terms “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean Norway or Turkey as the context requires;

    2. the term ”person” includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;

    3. the term ”company” means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

    4. the terms ”enterprise of a Contracting State” and ”enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

    5. the term ”international traffic” means any transport by a ship, aircraft or road vehicle operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship, aircraft or road vehicle is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;

    6. the term ”competent authority” means:

      1. in Norway, the Minister of Finance or the Minister’s authorised representative;

      2. in Turkey, the Minister of Finance or the Minister’s authorised representative;

    7. the term ”national”, in relation to a Contracting State, means:

      1. any individual possessing the nationality or citizenship of that Contracting State; and

      2. any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in that Contracting State.

  2. As regards the application of the Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4

Resident

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term ”resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, legal head office, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State.

  2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:

    1. he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);

    2. if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;

    3. if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;

    4. if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.

  3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated. However, where such person has its place of effective management in a Contracting State and its legal head office in the other Contracting State, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall determine by mutual agreement the State of which the person shall be deemed to be a resident for the purposes of the Convention. In the absence of such agreement, such person shall not be considered to be a resident of either Contracting State for the purposes of enjoying benefits under the Convention.

Article 5

Permanent Establishment

  • 1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term ”permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

  • 2. The term ”permanent establishment” includes especially:

    1. a place of management;

    2. a branch;

    3. an office;

    4. a factory;

    5. a workshop, and

    6. a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources.

  • 3. A building site, construction, assembly or installation project or supervisory activities in connection therewith constitute a permanent establishment only if such site, project or activities continue for a period of more than six months.

  • 4. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State performs services, other than the services that are dealt with in Article 14, in the other Contracting State;

    1. through one or more individuals who are present in that other State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period, and more than 50 per cent of the gross revenues attributable to active business activities of the enterprise during this period or periods are derived from the services performed in that other State through that individual or those individuals, or

    2. for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period, and these services are performed for the same project or connected projects through one or more individuals who are performing such services in that other State or are present in that other State for the purpose of performing such services (excluding an individual who performs such services on behalf of another enterprise, unless the first-mentioned enterprise supervises, directs or controls the manner in which such services are performed by the individual),

    the activities carried on in that other State in performing these services shall be deemed to be carried on through a permanent establishment of the enterprise situated in that other State, unless these services are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 5 which, if performed through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.

  • 5. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term ”permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:

    1. the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage or display of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

    2. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display;

    3. the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

    4. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;

    5. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;

    6. the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs a) to e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

  • 6. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 7 applies - is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first-mentioned Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, if such a person:

    1. has and habitually exercises in that State an authority to conclude contracts in the  name of the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 5 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph; or

    2. has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first-mentioned State a stock of goods or merchandise from which he regularly delivers goods or merchandise on behalf of the enterprise.

  • 7. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.

  • 8. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

Income from Immovable Property

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

  2. The term ”immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property (including livestock and equipment used in agriculture, forestry and the breeding and cultivation of fish and seafood), rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

  3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

Business Profits

  1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.

  2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

  3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

  4. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

  5. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

  6. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

Shipping, Air and Road Transport

  1. Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships, aircraft or road vehicle in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.

  2. The provision of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits derived from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

  3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall apply to profits derived by the joint Norwegian, Danish and Swedish air transport consortium Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), but only insofar as profits derived by SAS Norge AS, the Norwegian partner of the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), are in proportion to its share in that organisation.

Article 9

Associated Enterprises

  • 1. Where

    1. an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

    2. the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,

    and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

  • 2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State – and taxes accordingly – profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are by the first-mentioned State claimed to be profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits, where that other State considers the adjustment justified. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10

Dividends

  • 1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

  • 2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

    1. 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership) which holds directly at least 20 per cent of the capital of the company paying the dividends, provided that such dividends are exempt from tax in that other State;

    2. 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if:

      1. in the case of Norway: it is derived by the Government Pension Fund (Statens Pensjonsfond);

      2. in the case of Turkey: it is derived by the Government Social Security Fund (Sosyal Güvenlik Fonu)

      provided that such dividends are exempt from tax in that other State;

    3. 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

  1. 3. The term ”dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, ”jouissance” shares or ”jouissance” rights, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

  2. 4. Profits of a company of a Contracting State carrying on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein may, after having been taxed under Article 7, be taxed on the remaining amount in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated and in accordance with paragraph 2 (a) of this Article.

  3. 5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

  4. 6. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of this Article, where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

Article 11

Interest

  • 1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

  • 2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

    1. 5 per cent of the gross amount of the interest if it is paid to:

      A) In the case of Norway:

      1. the Government Pension Fund (Statens Pensjonsfond);

      2. the Norwegian Guarantee Institute for Export Credits (Garantiinstituttet for Eksportkreditt);

      3. Eksportfinans ASA, provided that the interest is wholly or mainly passed on to the Government of Norway under the 108 Agreement between Eksportfinans ASA and the Government of Norway;

      B) In the case of Turkey:

      1. the Turkish Social Security Fund (Sosyal Güvenlik Fonu);

      2. the Eximbank of Turkey (Türkiye Ihracat Kredi Bankası)

    2. 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest if it is paid to a bank;

    3. 15 per cent of the gross amount of the interest in all other cases

  • 3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to the Government or the Central Bank of the other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned State.

  • 4. The term ”interest” as used in this Article means income from Government securities, bonds or debentures, whether or not secured by mortgage and debt-claims of every kind as well as all other income assimilated to income from money lent by the taxation law of the State in which the income arises.

  • 5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

  • 6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

  • 7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 12

Royalties

  1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

  2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

  3. The term ”royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received  as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, the sale of, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films and recordings for radio and television, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment.

  4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

  5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or fixed base, in connection with which the right or property giving rise to the royalties is effectively connected, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

  6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount.  In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

Article 13

Capital Gains

  1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

  2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

  3. Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships, aircraft or road vehicles operated in international traffic, or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships, aircraft or road vehicles shall be taxable only in that State.

  4. Gains from the alienation of shares of the capital stock of a company the property of which consists directly or indirectly principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

  5. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of shares, bonds and any other financial instruments issued by a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State if the time period between acquisition and alienation does not exceed one year.

  6. Gains from the alienation of any property, other than that referred to in the preceding paragraphs, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

Article 14

Independent Personal Services

  • 1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State. However, such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State if such services or activities are performed in that other State and if:

    1. he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other State for the purpose of performing those services or activities; or

    2. he is present in that other State for the purpose of performing those services or activities for a period or periods amounting in the aggregate to 183 days or more in any continuous period of 12 months.

    In such circumstances, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base or derived from the services or activities performed during his presence in that other State, as the case may be, may be taxed in that other State.

  • 2. Income derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State. However, such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State if such services or activities are performed in that other State and if:

    1. the enterprise has a permanent establishment in that other State through which the services or activities are performed; or

    2. the period or periods during which the services or activities are performed exceed in the aggregate 183 days in any continuous period of 12 months.

    In such circumstances, only so much of the income as is attributable to that permanent establishment or to the services or activities performed in that other State, as the case may be, may be taxed in that other State.

  • 3. Where an individual or an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in the other Contracting State according to the preceding paragraphs, that individual or enterprise may elect to be taxed in that other State in respect of such income in accordance with the provisions of Article 7 of this Convention as if the income were attributable to a permanent establishment of the enterprise situated in that other State. This election shall not affect the right of that other State to impose a withholding tax on such income.

  • 4. The term ”professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

Dependent Personal Services

  1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19 and 20 salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

  2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

    1. the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve months period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and

    2. the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is a resident of the first-mentioned State, and

    3. the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in that other State.

  3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship, aircraft or road vehicle operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

  4. Where a resident of a Contracting State derives remuneration in respect of an employment exercised aboard an aircraft operated in international traffic by the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) consortium, such remuneration shall be taxable only in that State.

Article 16

Directors' Fees

Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or any other organ performing the same or similar functions of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

Artistes and Sportsmen

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsman, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

  2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsman in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsman himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportsman are exercised.

  3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply to income derived from activities performed in a Contracting State by entertainers or sportsmen if the visit to that State is wholly or mainly supported by public funds of one or both of the Contracting States or political subdivisions or local authorities thereof. In such a case, the income is taxable only in the Contracting State in which the entertainer or the sportsman is a resident.

Article 18

Pensions, Annuities and Alimony

  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State.

  2. Annuities derived and beneficially owned by an individual resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State. The term ”annuities” as used in this paragraph means a stated sum paid periodically at stated times during a specified number of years, or for life, under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration.

  3. Alimony and other maintenance payments paid to a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State. However, any alimony or other maintenance payment paid by a resident of one of the Contracting States to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, to the extent it is not allowable as a relief to the payer, be taxable only in the first-mentioned State.

Article 19

Government Service

    1. Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

    2. However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:

      1. is a national of that State; or

      2. did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

    1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, any pensions and other similar remuneration paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political   subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

    2. However, such pensions and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.

  1. The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

Students and Researchers

  1. Payments, including grants and scholarships, which a student or business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.

  2. Likewise, grants and scholarships which a researcher, who is a national of a Contracting State and who is present in the other Contracting State for the primary purpose of engaging in scientific research for a period or periods not exceeding two years, receives for the purpose of his research shall not be taxed in that other State, provided that such payments arise from sources in the first-mentioned State.

  3. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply to any grant or scholarship received in respect of research work undertaken not in the public interest but primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

Article 21

Offshore Activities

  1. The provisions of this Article shall apply notwithstanding any other provision of this Convention.

  2. A person who is a resident of a Contracting State and carries on activities offshore in the other Contracting State in connection with the exploration or exploitation of the seabed or subsoil or their natural resources situated in that other State shall, subject to paragraphs 3 and 4 of this Article, be deemed in relation to those activities to be carrying on business in that other State through a permanent establishment situated therein.

  3. The provisions of paragraph 2 and sub-paragraph b) of paragraph 6 shall not apply where the activities are carried on for a period not exceeding 30 days in the aggregate in any twelve months period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned.  However, for the purposes of this paragraph:

    1. activities carried on by an enterprise associated with another enterprise shall be regarded as carried on by the enterprise with which it is associated if the activities in question are substantially the same as those carried on by the last-mentioned enterprise;

    2. two enterprises shall be deemed to be associated if:

      1. an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

      2. the same person or persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of both enterprises.

  4. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the transportation of supplies or personnel to a location, or between locations, where activities in connection with the exploration or exploitation of the seabed or subsoil or their natural resources are being carried on in a Contracting State, or from the operation of tugboats and other vessels auxiliary to such activities, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the enterprise is a resident.

    1. Subject to sub-paragraph (b) of this paragraph, salaries, wages and similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment connected with the exploration or exploitation of the seabed or subsoil or their natural resources situated in the other Contracting State may, to the extent that the duties are performed offshore in that other State, be taxed in that other State. However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if the employment is carried on offshore for an employer who is a resident of the first-mentioned State and provided that the employment is carried on for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 30 days in any twelve-month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned.

    2. Salaries, wages and similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft engaged in the transportation of supplies or personnel to a location, or between locations, where activities connected with the exploration or exploitation of the seabed or subsoil or their natural resources are being carried on in the other Contracting State, or in respect of an employment exercised aboard tugboats or other vessels operated auxiliary to such activities, may be taxed in the State of which the enterprise carrying on such activities is a resident.

  5. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of:

    1. exploration or exploitation rights; or

    2. property situated in the other Contracting State and used in connection with the exploration or exploitation of the seabed or subsoil or their natural resources situated in that other State; or

    3. shares deriving their value or the greater part of their value directly or indirectly from such rights or such property or from such rights and such property taken together,

    may be taxed in that other State.

    In this paragraph ”exploration or exploitation rights” means rights to assets to be produced by the exploration or exploitation of the seabed or subsoil or their natural resources in the other Contracting State, including rights to interests in or to the benefit of such assets.

Article 22

Other Income

  1. Items of income arising from a Contracting State, which are not expressly mentioned in the foregoing Articles of this Convention, may be taxed in that State.

  2. Items of income arising outside the two Contracting States, which are not expressly mentioned in the foregoing Articles of this Convention, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the person receiving the income in question is a resident.

Article 23

Elimination of Double Taxation

  1. Subject to the provisions of the laws of Norway regarding the allowance as a credit against Norwegian tax of tax payable in a territory outside Norway (which shall not affect the general principle of this Article),

    1. Where a resident of Norway derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Turkey, Norway shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income tax paid in Turkey on that income. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the income tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to the income which may be taxed in Turkey.

    2. Where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived by a resident of Norway is exempt from tax in Norway, Norway may nevertheless include such income in the tax base, but shall allow as a deduction from the Norwegian tax on income that part of the income tax which is attributable to the income derived from Turkey.

  2. Subject to the provisions of the laws of Turkey regarding the allowance as a credit against Turkish tax of tax payable in a territory outside Turkey (as they may be amended from time to time without changing the general principles hereof),

    1. Norwegian tax payable under the laws of Norway  and in accordance with this Convention in respect of income (including profits and chargeable gains) derived by a resident of Turkey from sources within Norway shall be allowed as a deduction from the Turkish tax on such income. Such deduction, however, shall not exceed the amount of Turkish tax, as computed before the deduction is made, attributable to such income.

    2. Where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived by a resident of Turkey is exempt from tax in Turkey, Turkey may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

Article 24

Non-Discrimination

  1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.  This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

  2. Stateless persons who are residents of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in either Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of the State concerned in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.

  3. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 10, the taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. 

  4. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 7 of Article 11, or paragraph 6 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State. 

  5. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.

  6. These provisions shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

Article 25

Mutual Agreement Procedure

  1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.

  2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention.  Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.

  3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.

  4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly, including through a joint commission consisting of themselves or their representatives, for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. 

Article 26

Exchange of Information

  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.

  2. Any information received under paragraph 1 by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes referred to in paragraph 1, or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes.  They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions. Notwithstanding the foregoing, information received by a Contracting State may be used for other purposes when such information may be used for such other purposes under the laws of both States and the competent authority of the supplying State authorises such use.

  3. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

    1. to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

    2. to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

    3. to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

  4. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph 3, but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.

  5. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.

Article 27

Assistance in the Collection of Taxes

  1. The Contracting States shall lend assistance to each other in the collection of revenue claims. This assistance is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this Article.

  2. The term “revenue claim” as used in this Article means an amount owed in respect of taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Convention or any other instrument to which the Contracting States are parties, as well as interest, administrative penalties and costs of collection or conservancy related to such amount.

  3. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of collection by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That revenue claim shall be collected by that other State in accordance with the provisions of its laws applicable to the enforcement and collection of its own taxes as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State.

  4. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is a claim in respect of which that State may, under its law, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of taking measures of conservancy by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That other State shall take measures of conservancy in respect of that revenue claim in accordance with the provisions of its laws as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State even if, at the time when such measures are applied, the revenue claim is not enforceable in the first-mentioned State or is owed by a person who has a right to prevent its collection.

  5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, be subject to the time limits or accorded any priority applicable to a revenue claim under the laws of that State by reason of its nature as such. In addition, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for the purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, have any priority applicable to that revenue claim under the laws of the other Contracting State.

  6. Proceedings with respect to the existence, validity or the amount of a revenue claim of a Contracting State shall not be brought before the courts or administrative bodies of the other Contracting State.

  7. Where, at any time after a request has been made by a Contracting State under paragraph 3 or 4 and before the other Contracting State has collected and remitted the relevant revenue claim to the first-mentioned State, the relevant revenue claim ceases to be

    1. in the case of a request under paragraph 3, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State that is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, or

    2. in the case of a request under paragraph 4, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State in respect of which that State may, under its laws, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection

the competent authority of the first-mentioned State shall promptly notify the competent authority of the other State of that fact and, at the option of the other State, the first-mentioned State shall either suspend or withdraw its request.

  1. In no case shall the provisions of this Article be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

    1. to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

    2. to carry out measures which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public);

    3. to provide assistance if the other Contracting State has not pursued all reasonable measures of collection or conservancy, as the case may be, available under its laws or administrative practice;

    4. to provide assistance in those cases where the administrative burden for that State is clearly disproportionate to the benefit to be derived by the other Contracting State.

Article 28

Members of Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts

  1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

  2. Insofar as, due to fiscal privileges granted to members of diplomatic missions and consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special international agreements, income is not subject to tax in the receiving State, the right to tax shall be reserved to the sending State.

Article 29

Entry into Force

  1. Each of the Contracting States shall notify to the other, through the diplomatic channels the completion of the procedures required by its domestic law for the bringing into force of this Convention. This Convention shall enter into force on the date of the latter of these notifications and its provisions shall have effect for taxes with respect to every taxable period beginning on or after the first day of January of the year following that of entry into force of the Convention.

  2. “The Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and the Republic of Turkey for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and for the Arrangement of Some Other Matters With Respect to Taxes on Income and Capital”, signed in Ankara on 16 December 1971 shall cease to have effect from the date on which this Convention becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 30

Termination

This Convention shall remain in force until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Convention, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year following after the period of five years from the date on which the Convention enters into force. In such event, the Convention shall cease to have effect for taxes with respect to every taxable period beginning on or after the first day of January of the year following that in which the notice is given.

In witness whereof, the undersigned duly authorized hereto, have signed the present Convention.

Done in duplicate at Ankara this 15th day of January 2010, in the Norwegian, Turkish and English languages, all three texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence between the texts, the English text shall prevail.

For the Kingdom of

For the Republic of

Norway

Turkey

Protocol

At the moment of the signing of the Convention between the Kingdom of Norway and the Republic of Turkey for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to taxes on income, the undersigned have agreed that the following provisions constitute an integral part of the Convention.

1. With reference to Article 7, paragraph 1

The profits derived from the sale of goods or merchandise of the same or similar kind as those sold, or from other business activities of the same or similar kind as those effected, through a permanent establishment, may be considered attributable to that permanent establishment if it is proved that this transaction has been resorted to in order to avoid taxation in the State where the permanent establishment is situated.

2. With reference to Article 7, paragraph 3

In determining the profits of a permanent establishment there shall not be allowed as deductions payments for interest, royalties, commissions or other similar payments made to the enterprise itself or to other permanent establishments for sharing all or part of the losses or expenses of the enterprise itself or of other permanent establishments located abroad. However, the permanent establishment may, in accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 7 of the Agreement, deduct interest, royalties, commissions or other similar payments (including expenses for research and development) incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment.

3. With reference to Article 10, paragraph 2 (b) and Article 11, paragraph 2 (a)

It is understood that paragraph 2 (b) of Article 10 and paragraph 2 (a) of Article 11 applies also if the payment is made to the Central Bank of Norway in its capacity as a manager of the Government Pension Fund, provided that such dividends or interest is passed on to the Government Pension Fund.

4. With reference to Article 10, paragraph 3

It is understood that the term “dividends” includes the payment of manufactured dividends by a borrower to a lender under a securities lending agreement. “Manufactured dividends” mean an amount corresponding to the dividends which are distributed on the borrowed shares during the loan period.

It is understood that, in the case of Turkey, the term “dividends” includes income derived from an investment fund or an investment trust.

5. With reference to Article 12, paragraph 3

It is understood that in the case of any payment received as a consideration for the sale of the property, the provisions of Article 13 shall apply, unless it is proved that the payment in question is not a payment for genuine alienation of the said property. In such case the provisions of Article 12 shall apply.

6. With reference to Article 13, paragraph 3

It is understood that paragraph 3 of Article 13 shall apply whether the ships, aircraft or road vehicles were operated by a resident of one of the Contracting States or not.

7. With reference to Article 13, paragraph 5

It is understood that the term “financial instruments” in paragraph 5 of Article 13 covers especially:

  1. a debt security;

  2. an equity security;

  3. an insurance policy;

  4. an interest in a partnership, a trust or the estate of a deceased individual, or any right in respect of such interest;

  5. a precious metal;

  6. a guarantee, an acceptance or an indemnity in respect of anything described in paragraphs (a), (b), (d) or (e); or

  7. an option or a contract for the future supply of commodity, money or anything described in any of paragraphs (a) to (f). 

8. With reference to Article 15, paragraph 2

It is understood that paragraph 2 of Article 15 shall not apply to remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State (”the employee”), and paid by or on behalf of an employer who is a resident of that State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State where:

  1. the employee renders services in the course of that employment to a person other than the employer who, directly or indirectly, supervises, directs or controls the manner in which those services are performed; and

  2. the employer is not responsible for the outcome of the work performed by the recipient.

9. With reference to Article 18

It is understood that if Turkey, after the date of signature of this Convention, enters into a tax treaty with a state being a party to the European Economic Area Agreement, which allows that state to tax pensions and other similar remuneration which arises in that state and is paid to a resident of Turkey in consideration of past employment, negotiations for a revision of Article 18, as well as the Articles 10 (2), 11 (2) and 12 (2) and (3) of this Convention shall take place.    

10. With reference to Article 24

It is understood that Article 24 applies only to taxes that are covered by Article 2.

11. With reference to Article 25, paragraph 2

It is understood that with respect to paragraph 2 of Article 25 the taxpayer must in the case of Turkey claim the refund resulting from such mutual agreement within a period of one year after the tax administration has notified the taxpayer of the result of the mutual agreement.

In witness whereof, the undersigned duly authorized hereto, have signed the present Protocol.

Done in duplicate at Ankara. This 15th day of January 2010, in the Norwegian, Turkish and English languages, all three texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence between the texts, the English text shall prevail.

For the Kingdom of

For the Republic of

Norway

Turkey

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