NOU 2000: 29

GMO-mat— Helsemessige konsekvenser ved bruk av genmodifiserte næringsmidler og næringsmiddelingredienser

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Litteraturliste

Beever and Kemp, 2000: Safety issues associated with the DNA in animal derived from genetically modified crops. A review of scientific and regulatory procedures. Nutrition Abstrac Reviews, series B Livestock Feeds and Feeding 70:3, 175-182

Beier RC, 1990: Natural pesticides and bioactive components in foods. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol; 113, 47-137

Belgian Biosafety Server (http://biosafety.ihe.be/TP/TPmarket.html)

BINAS (The Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service): Latest News Bulletin February 2000

Calgene, 1990: Kanrgene: Safety and use in the production of genetically engineered plants. Request for advisory opinion. Calgene Inc., California

Can J, Preet K og Punia D, 2000: Proximate composition, phytic acid, polyphenols and digestibility (in vitro) of four brown cowpea varieties. Int. J of Food Science and Nutrition 51:3, 189-193

Chavadej S, Brisson N, McNeil JN og De Luca V, 1994: Redirection of tryptophan leads to production of low indole glucosinolate canola. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 91(6), 2166-70

Codex FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 65, 1997, og FAO/WHO Application of risk analysis to food standards issues, 1995

Conner AJ og Jacobs JM, 1999: Genetic engineering of crops as potential source of genetic hazard in the human diet. Mutat Res. 443(1-2), 223-34

Devlin RH, Yesaki TY, Donaldson EM, Du SJ, Shao JD og Hew CL, 1995: Production of germline transgenic pacific salmonids with dramatically increased growth-performance. Can. J of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:7, 1376-1384

Domingo JL, 2000: Health risks of GM foods: many opinions but few data. Science 288: 1748-1749

Donaldson, Liam and Sir Robert May 1999: Health Implications of Genetically Modified Foods. Department of Health; A report by the Chief Medical Offer (CMO) and the Chief Scientific Adviser (CSA UK)

Doolittle RF, Feng DF, Andresson KL og Alberro MR, 1990: A naturally occuring horizontal gene transfer from a eucaryote to a procaryote. J. Mol. Evol.31:383-388.

Droge M, Puhler A, Selbischtka W: University of Bielefeld, Departement of Genetics Germany: Artikkel: Horizontal gene transfers as a biosafety issue: a natural phenomenon of public concern

Editors & Reporters: Guide to Biotechnology: Ag Products on the Market

EU: Commision Decision 97/579/EC setting up Scientific Committees in the field of consumer health and food safety

EU: Commision of the European Communities COM (2000) 1.02.2000: Communication from the Commision on the precautionary principle

EU: Commision recommendation (EC) No 97/618 concerning the scientific aspects and the presentation of information necessary to support applications for the placing on the market of novel foods and novel food ingredients and the preparation of initial assessment report under Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council.

EU: Council Directive of 23 April 1990 on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, Rådsdirektiv 90/220/EØF

EU: European Commision: Opinion of the scientific Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance, 29 May 1999 (GMO s 38-41)

EU: Regulation (EC) 97/116

EU: Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients (Novel Foods forordningen)

Ewen SWB og Pusztai A, 1999: Authors' reply. Lancet 354: 1723-1729, 1999b

Ewen SWB og Pusztai A, 1999: Effects of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Lancet 354: 1353-1355, 1999a

FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 61, 1996: Biotechnology and food safety (Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Consultation Rome, Italy 30 September - 4 October 1996

Greene AE og Allison RF, 1996: Deletions in the 3' untranslated region of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus transgene reduce recovery of recombinant viruses in transgenic plants. Virology 225: 231-234

Greene AE og Allison RF, 1994: Recombination between viral RNA and transgenic plant transcripts. Science 263: 1423-1425, 1994

Guillen I, Berlanga J, Valenzuela CM, Morales A, Toledo J Estrada MP, Puntes P, Hayes O, og delaFuente J, 1999: Safety evaluation of transgenic tilapia with accelerated growth. Marine Biotechnology, 1.2-1.4.

Hammond BG, Vivini JL, Hartnell GF, Naylor MW, Knight CD, Robinson EH, Fuchs RL og Padgette SR, 1996: The feeding value of soybeans fed to rats, chickens, catfish and dairy cattle is not altered by genetic incorporation of glyphosate tolerance. Journal of Nutrition 126: 717-727.

Hoffmann T, Golz C, Schieder O: Foreign DNA sequences are received by a wild-type strain of Aspergillus-niger after co-culture with transgenic higher-plants. Current Genetics 27:1, 70-76.

Howard CV og Saunders PT, 1999: Sensible precautions make good science. Nature 401:207

ILSI Europe Series, 1999: Safety Assessment of Viable Genetically Modified Micro-Organisms used in Food. Consensus Guidelines reached at a workshop held in April 1999

International union for the protection of new varieties of plants (UPOV), Geneva, Draft Revised working document for a new general introduction to the assessment of distinctness, uniformity and stability in new varieties of plants. Technical Committee, Thirty-Sixth Session, Geneva, April 3 to 5, 2000.

Khan MS og Maliga P, 1999: Fluorescent antibiotic resistance marker for tracking plastid transformation in higher plants. Nature Biotechnology 17:9, 910-915.

Kruse H og Jansson J, 1997: The use of antibiotic resistance genes as marker genes in genetically modified organisms. Report 97:03. Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT), Oslo, Norway

Lowrie DB, 1998: DNA vaccination exploits normal biology. Nat Med. 4: 147-149, 1998

MAFF: Advisory committee on Novel Foods and Prosesses (ACNFP): How safety is assessed using a comparative approach

Ma JK, Hikmat BY, Wycoff K, Vine ND, Chargelegue D, Yu L, Hein MB, Lehner, 1998: Characterization of a recombinant plant monoclonal secretory antibody and preventive immunotherapy in humans. Nat. Med 1998:4, 601-606.

Ma JK, 1999: The caries vaccine: a growing prospect. Dent Update, 26: 374-380

Malik, VS and Saroha MK, 2000: Marker gene controversy in transgenic plants, http://www.agbios.com/articles/2000186-A.htm.

Mathiowitz E, Jacob JS, Jong YS og Carino GP, 1997: Biologically erodable microspheres as potential oral drug delivery system. Nature 386: 410-414

Myhr AI og Traavik T, 1999: The precautionary principle applied to deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Microb Ecol Hlth Dis 11: 65-74).

Nap JP, Bijvoet J, Stickema WJ: Biosafety of kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants

Nielsen KM, Bones AM, Smalla K og vanElsas JD, 1998: Horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to terrestrial bacteria - a rare event? FEMS MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS 22:2, 79-103

Nielsen KM, Gebbard F, Smalla K, Bones KM, van Elsas JD, 1997: Evaluation of possible horisontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BD413. Theroretical and Applied genetics 95:815-821

Nordic Council of Ministers: Safety Assessment of Novel Food Plants, Chemical Analytical Approaches to the Establishment of Substantial Equivalence (TemaNord 1998:591)

Nordic Council, Copenhagen, Nord 1991:18: Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation 1991. Food and new biotechnology - novelty, safety and control aspects of foods made by new biotechnology

Noteborn HPJM, Bienenmann-Ploum ME, van den Berg JHJ, Alink GM, Zolla L, Reynaerts A, Pensa M, Kuiper HA. Safety assessment of the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein CRY1A(b) expressed in transgenic tomatoes. In Engel K-H, Takeoka GR, Teranishi R (editors): Genetically modified foods: Safety issues, ACS Symposium Series 605, sidene 134-147, Washington DC, 1995

Novak WK og Haslberger AG, 2000: Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods. Food Chem Toxicol, Food chem Toxicol, 38(6), 473-83

OECD May 2000: Report of the Ad hoc Group on Food Safety: Overview of Food Safety Systems and Activities

OECDs Database of Field Trials (includes records of fields trials of genetically modified organisms which have taken place in OECD Member countries).

OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, http://www.oecd.org/ehs/test/

Preet K og Punia D, 2000: Proximate composition phytic acid polyphenols and digestibility (in vitro) of four brown cowpea varieties. Int J Food Nutr 51:3, 189-193

Rahman MA and Maclean N: Growth performance of transgenic tilapia containing an exogenous piscine growth hormone gene. Aquaculture, 173, 333-346.

Rahman MA, Mak R, Ayad H, Smith A and Maclean N, 1998: Expression of a novel piscine growth hormone gene results in growth enhancement in transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).Transgenic Research, 7, 357-369.

Rekvig OP, Fredriksen K, Brannsether B, Moens U, Sundsfjord A, Traavik T, 1992: Antibodies to eukaryotic, including autologous, native DNA are produced during BK virus infection, but not after immunization with non-infectious BK DNA. Scand J Immunol. 36(3):487-95.

Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms. A general guidance (UK)

Saunders RL, Fletcher GL and Hew CL, 1998: Smolt development in growth hormone transgenic Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture 168, 177-194.

Schluter K, Futterer J, Potrykus I, Okt 1995: Horizontal gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency. Bio-technology 13:10, 1094-1098

Schubbert R, Hohlweg U, Renz D and Doerfler W, 1998: On the fate of orally ingested foreign DNA in mice: chromosomal association and placental transmission to the fetus. Mol Gen Genet 259: 569-576

Schubbert R, Lettmann C and Doerfler W, 1994: Ingested foreign (phage M13) DNA survives transiently in the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream of mice. Mol Gen Genet 242: 495-504

Schubbert R, Renz D, Schmitz, B and Doerfler W, 1997: Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 961-966

Shils SM, Olson JA, Shike M (eds.), 1994: Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8. Edition, Lea & Febiger, London 1994

Sin FYT, 1997: Transgenic fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 7, 417-441.

SNT mai 1998: Retningslinjer for helserisikovurdering av ny mat

St meld nr 37 (1992-93) «Om utfordringer i helsefremmende og forebyggende arbeid

St.meld nr 40 (1998-99) «Om forbrukerpolitikk og organisering av forbrukerapparatet»

Stewart GJ, 1989: Gene transfer among bacteria in soil, 139-164. In Levy SB, Miller RV (eds). Gene transfer in the environment. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Sønju, Haakon, 1995: Godkjenning av plantesorter. Gartneryrket 2, 27/1-95

The European Commision: Health and Consumer Protection. Important legal notice - Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Plants

The Lancet: volume 354 number 9/187, 14 October 1999: Effect of diets containing genetically modifoed potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Stanley W B Even, Arpad Pusztai

The Royal Society September 1998 (1/98 summary, 2/98 full report): Genetically modified Plants for Food Use

The Royal Society, 11/99 June 1999: Review of data on possible toxity of GM potatoes

Traavik T, 1999: An Orphan in Science: Environmental Risks of Genetically Engineered Vaccines. Research Report for DN No. 1999-6. Directorate of Nature Management, Trondheim, 1999b (ISBN 82-7072-351-7)

Traavik T, 1999: Too Early May be Too Late. Ecological risks associated with the use of naked DNA as a biological tool for research, production and therapy. Research Report for DN No. 1999-1. Directorate of Nature Management, Trondheim, 1999a (ISBN 82-7072-304-5)

Tsukamoto M, Ochiya T, Yoshida S, Sugimura T and Terada M, 1995: Gene transfer and expression in progeny after intravenous DNA injection into pregnant mice. Nature Genet 9: 243-249, 1995

U S Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food & Applied Nutrition, Office of Premarket Approval

U S Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition: Guidance for Industry: Use of Antibiotic Resistance Marker Genes in Transgenic Plants. Draft Guidance September 4, 1998

Vazquez-Padron RI, Gonzales Cobrera J. Garcia Tovar C, Neri Bazan L, Lopez Revilla R, Hermandez M, Moreno Fierro L, de la Riva GA, 2000: CrylAc protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis sp. Kurstaki HD73 binds to surface proteins in the mouse small intestine. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications, 271:548

Vazquez-Padron RI, Martinez Gil AF, Ayra-Pardo C, Gonzales Cabrera J, Frieto Samsonov DL, de la Riva GA, 1998: Biochemical characterization of the third domain from Bacillus thuringiensis CrylA toxins, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology International; 45(5) 1011-20, 1998 Aug

Vazquez-Padron RI, Moreno Fierros L, Neri Bazan L, de la Riva GA, Lopez Revilla R, 1999: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 49; 578-84, 1999

Vazquez-Padron RI, Moreno Fierros L, Neri Bazan L, Martinez Gil AE, de la Riva GA Lopez Revilla R, 2000: Characterization of the mucosal and sytemic immune response induced by Cryl Ac protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 in mice. Brazilian Journal of Medical & Biological Research. 33(2):147-55, 2000 Feb

WHO Workshop 1995: Application of the Principles of Substantial Equivalence to the Safety Evaluation of Foods or Food Components from Plants derived by modern Biotechnology

WHO: Health aspects of marker genes in genetically modified plants. Report of a WHO workshop. 1993. WHO, Geneva.

Aarestrup FM, Agerso Y, Gerner-Smidt P, Madsen, M and Jensen LB, 2000: Comparison of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from humans in the community, broilers and pigs in Denmark Diagnostic Microbiologyand Infectious Disease 37, 127-137

Diverse artikler:

«Belgian Biosafety Server»

About the safety of GM Plants containing a bacaterial antibiotic resistance gene

Placing transgenic crops on the EU Market

Types of antibiotics and related resistance genes

Antibiotic Resistance Gene Markers in GMOs; selected reading

«Biological Chemistry»:

vol. 380, Nr 7-8, Jul-Aug 1999 side 825-839: Molecular faming of recombinant antibodies in plants, Fischer R, Liao YC, Hoffmann K, Schillberg S

«Nature»

vol. 398 22 April GM foods debate needs a recipe for restoring trust

vol. 401 21 October Journal under attack over controversial paper on GM food

vol. 398 29 April 1999 Swiss reject GM trial to protect organics

vol. 399 30 May 1999 UK debates publics role in science advice

vol. 398 18 March 1999 Neolithic genetic engineering

vol. 399 27 May 1999 Britain opens Biotech regulation to greater public involvement

vol. 400 22 July 1999 US sends mixed mesage in GM debate

vol. 399 3 June 1999 Cautionary tale on safety of GM crops

vol. 400 1 July 1999 Why Africa needs agricultural biotech

vol. 406 31 Aug 2000;406(6799):956-7.

«Phytoprotection»:

vol. 75 1994 side 71-77: Herbicide-Resistant Crops - a Weed Scientists Perspective

artikkel MJA 2000; 172:148-149. Richard Horton Editor, The Lancet : Genetically modified food; consternation, confusion, and crack-up

«Science»:

vol. 285 16 July 1999: Plant Biotechnology: Food and Feed: The Plant Revolution.

vol. 286:1663, 1999

vol. 287 21 January 2000: Monitoring and Labelling for Genetically Modified Products

vol. 287 4 February Consumer Power Heralds Hard Times for Researchers

vol. 283 15 January 1999 Crop Scientists Seek a New Revolution

vol. 282 30 October 1998 Seed-Sterilizing Terminator Technology Sows Discord

vol 284 28 May 1999 Britain Struggels to Turn Anti-GM Tide

vol. 287 nr 5451, 14 Jan 2000 s 303-305: Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene)

biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free)rice edosperm

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